Saturday, August 31, 2019

Cover Girl Advertisement

When thinking of advertisements, for some odd reason, I immediately will think of Cover Girl makeup ads that are often found in almost every woman’s magazine. However, this particular advertisement features country music superstar Taylor Swift and very similar to all of their distinctive ads focuses mostly on her face. This ad is for their new â€Å"natureluxe silk foundation- luxury touched by nature. † From this relatively simple ad, as it only contains a close up of Taylor Swift as well as text, it allows for the discussion of it’s unique aesthetics. The first thing that I would like to discuss is the colors that are used within this advertisement. The advertisement finds balance by using a soft and light yet trendy green for their top lettering of Cover Girl, some pop out lettering under the image all to match the color of the actual foundation bottle. The advertisement becomes more appealing to the eye as Cover Girl is attempting to create an earthy yet â€Å"simple is beautiful† feel for their audience. Also, the actual colors of Taylor Swift herself are very fair and soft as it looks as if she is not wearing any foundations. In addition, she is wearing a pale pink ruffled dress adding to the light, fluffy and earthy feel of the advertisement as a whole. However, the majority of the wording is a dark black with some of the font in bold and different sizes. It is evident that the advertisers are attempting to bring their audience’s attention down from Taylor Swift to what they actually have to say about the product by using opposing colors and bold text. In addition to the colors that were used, the actual wording that was used is particularly interesting. The advertisement uses many different sizes and colors within the whole image. The top Cover Girl is in the light green color reflecting back to the idea of softness and it is the vantage point for a person’s eyes. It is very bold and automatically draws attention to the top half of the advertisement. Also, the different very black and dark bold text at the bottom of the page seems intriguing for a few reasons. First, the different font types and sizes attempt to make you really see the first three lines very clearly and get an understanding of what the product is. However, the work â€Å"new† happens to be in green followed by â€Å"natureluxe silk foundation† with â€Å"luxe† being bolded, suggesting that this product is truly â€Å"luxury touched by nature;† which is in very small print right below that as well. In addition, I find it interesting that the two black bolded lines both have the word â€Å"air† in them and also soft, air-like words, such as â€Å"fresh† and â€Å"breath. To me this is suggesting that even though the text may be dark and bold, this product is still going to make the user feel fresh and lightweight. Therefore, this brings me to the last topic of the lighting that is used within the image as well as the text. With the text having a dark and bold at the top, it slowly becomes lighter and smaller and even throws in come light green text in there as well, suggesting that it almost has a elegant, luxurious feel to the text just as much as the makeup is going to have on a person’s face. Also, the lighting within the image is very bright and the backdrop of a complete white again is keeping the theme of lightweight and airy flowing throughout the entire advertisement. In addition, the bright, artificial white lighting is also used on Taylor Swift’s face as well as arm to suggest that she is feeling fresh and clean when wearing this foundation.

The Twilight Saga 2: New Moon Chapter 11 CULT

EACH TIME THAT I OPENED MY EYES TO THE MORNING light and realized I'd lived through another night was a surprise to me. After the surprise wore off, my heart would start to race and my palms would sweat; I couldn't really breathe again until I'd gotten up and ascertained that Charlie had survived as well. I could tell he was worriedwatching me jump at any loud sound, or my face suddenly go white for no reason that he could see. From the questions he asked now and then, he seemed to blame the change on Jacob's continued absence. The terror that was always foremost in my thoughts usually distracted me from the fact that another week had passed, and Jacob still hadn't called me. But when I was able to concentrate on my normal lifeif my life was really ever normalthis upset me. I missed him horribly. It had been bad enough to be alone before I was scared silly. Now, more than ever, I yearned for his carefree laugh and his infectious grin. I needed the safe sanity of his homemade garage and his warm hand around my cold fingers. I'd half expected him to call on Monday. If there had been some progress with Embry, wouldn't he want to report it? I wanted to believe that it was worry for his friend that was occupying all his time, not that he was just giving up on me. I called him Tuesday, but no one answered. Were the phone lines still having problems? Or had Billy invested in caller I.D.? On Wednesday I called every half hour until after eleven at night, desperate to hear the warmth of Jacob's voice. Thursday I sat in my truck in front of my housewith the locks pushed downkeys in hand, for a solid hour. I was arguing with myself, trying to justify a quick trip to La Push, but I couldn't do it. I knew that Laurent had gone back to Victoria by now. If I went to La Push, I took the chance of leading one of them there. What if they caught up to me when Jake was nearby? As much as it hurt me, I knew it was better for Jacob that he was avoiding me. Safer for him. It was bad enough that I couldn't figure out a way to keep Charlie safe. Nighttime was the most likely time that they would come looking ior me, and what could I say to get Charlie out of the house? If I told him the truth, he'd have me locked up in a rubber room somewhere. I would have endured thatwelcomed it, evenif it could have kept him safe. But Victoria would still come to his house first, looking for me. Maybe, if she found me here, that would be enough for her. Maybe she would just leave when she was done with me. So I couldn't run away. Even if I could, where would I go? To Renee? I shuddered at the thought of dragging my lethal shadows into my mother's safe, sunny world. I would never endanger her that way. The worry was eating a hole in my stomach. Soon I would have matching punctures. That night, Charlie did me another favor and called Harry again to see if the Blacks were out of town. Harry reported that Billy had attended the council meeting Wednesday night, and never mentioned anything about leaving. Charlie warned me not to make a nuisance of myselfJacob would call when he got around to it. Friday afternoon, as I drove home from school, it hit me out of the blue. I wasn't paying attention to the familiar road, letting the sound of the engine deaden my brain and silence the worries, when my subconscious delivered a verdict it must have been working on for some time without my knowledge. As soon as I thought of it, I felt really stupid for not seeing it sooner. Sure. I'd had a lot on my mindrevenue-obsessed vampires, giant mutant wolves, a ragged hole in the center of my chestbut when I laid the evidence out, it was embarrassingly obvious. Jacob avoiding me. Charlie saying he looked strange, upset. . . . Billy's vague, unhelpful answers. Holy crow, I knew exactly what was going on with Jacob. It was Sam Uley. Even my nightmares had been trying to tell me that. Sam had gotten to Jacob. Whatever was happening to the other boys on the reservation had reached out and stolen my friend. He'd been sucked into Sam's cult. He hadn't given up on me at all, I realized with a rush of feeling. I let my truck idle in front of my house. What should I do? I weighed the dangers against each other. If I went looking for Jacob, I risked the chance of Victoria or Laurent finding me with him. If I didn't go after him, Sam would pull him deeper into his frightening, compulsory gang. Maybe it would be too late if I didn't act soon. It had been a week, and no vampires had come for me yet. A week was more than enough time for them to have returned, so I must not be a priority. Most likely, as I'd decided before, they would come for me at night. The chances of them following me to La Push were much lower than the chance of losing Jacob to Sam. It was worth the danger of the secluded forest road. This was no idle visit to see what was going on. I knew what was going on. This was a rescue mission. I was going to talk to Jacobkidnap him if I had to. I'd once seen a PBS show on deprogramming the brainwashed. There had to be some kind of cure. I decided I'd better call Charlie first. Maybe whatever was going on down in La Push was something the police should be involved in. I dashed inside, in a hurry to be on my way. Charlie answered the phone it the station himself. â€Å"Chief Swan.† â€Å"Dad, it's Bella.† â€Å"What's wrong?'† I couldn't argue with his doomsday assumption this time. My voice was shaking. â€Å"I'm worried about Jacob.† â€Å"Why?† he asked, surprised by the unexpected topic. â€Å"I think I think something weird is going on down at the reservation. Jacob told me about some strange stuff happening with the other boys his age. Now he's acting the same way and I'm scared.† â€Å"What kind of stuff?† He used his professional, police business voice. That was good; he was taking me seriously. â€Å"First he was scared, and then he was avoiding me, and now I'm afraid he's part of that bizarre gang down there, Sam's gang. Sam Uley's gang.† â€Å"Sam Uley?† Charlie repeated, surprised again. â€Å"Yes.† Charlie's voice was more relaxed when he answered. â€Å"I think you've got it wrong, Bells. Sam Uley is a great kid. Well, he's a man now. A good son. You should hear Billy talk about him. He's really doing wonders with the youth on the reservation. He's the one who† Charlie broke off mid-sentence, and I guessed that he had been about to make a reference to the night I'd gotten lost in the woods. I moved on quickly. â€Å"Dad, it's not like that. Jacob was scared ofhim.† â€Å"Did you talk to Billy about this?† He was trying to soothe me now. I'd lost him as soon as I'd mentioned Sam. â€Å"Billy's not concerned.† â€Å"Well, Bella, then I'm sure it's okay. Jacob's a kid; he was probably just messing around. I'm sure he's fine. He can't spend every waking minute with you, after all.† â€Å"This isn't about me,† I insisted, but the battle was lost. â€Å"I don't think you need to worry about this. Let Billy take care of Jacob.† â€Å"Charlie† My voice was starting to sound whiney. â€Å"Bells, I got a lot on my plate right now. Two tourists have gone missing off a trail outside crescent lake.† There was an anxious edge to his voice. â€Å"This wolf problem is getting out of hand.† I was momentarily distractedstunned, reallyby his news. There was no way the wolves could have survived a match-up with Laurent â€Å"Are you sure that's what happened to them?† I asked. â€Å"Afraid so, honey. There was† He hesitated. â€Å"There were tracks again, and some blood this time.† â€Å"Oh!† It must not have come to a confrontation, then. Laurent must have simply outrun the wolves, but why? What I'd seen in the meadow just got stranger and strangermore impossible to understand. â€Å"Look, I really have to go. Don't worry about Jake, Bella. I'm sure it's nothing.† â€Å"Fine,† I said curtly, frustrated as his words reminded me of the more urgent crisis at hand. â€Å"Bye.† I hang up. I stared at the phone for a long minute. What the hell, I decided. Billy answered after two rings. â€Å"Hello?† â€Å"Hey, Billy,† I almost growled. I tried to sound more friendly as I continued. â€Å"Can I talk to Jacob, please?† â€Å"Jake's not here.† What a shock. â€Å"Do you know where he is?† â€Å"He's out with his friends.† Billy's voice was careful. â€Å"Oh yeah? Anyone I know? Quil?† I could tell the words didn't come across as casually as I'd meant them to. â€Å"No,† Billy said slowly. â€Å"I don't think he's with Quil today.† I knew better than to mention Sam's name. â€Å"Embry?† I asked. Billy seemed happier to answer this one. â€Å"Yeah, he's with Embry.† That was enough for me. Embry was one of them. â€Å"Well, have him call me when he gets in, all right?† â€Å"Sure, sure. No problem.† Click. â€Å"See you soon, Billy,† I muttered into the dead phone. I drove to La Push determined to wait. I'd sit out front of his house all night if I had to. I'd miss school. The boy was going to have to come home sometime, and when he did, he was going to have to talk to me. My mind was so preoccupied that the trip I'd been terrified of making seemed to take only a few seconds. Before I was expecting it, the forest began to thin, and I knew I would soon be able to see the first little houses of the reservation. Walking away, along the left side of the road, was a tall boy with a baseball cap. My breath caught for just a moment in my throat, hopeful that luck was with me for once, and I'd srumbled across Jacob without hardly trying. But this boy was too wide, and the hair was short under the hat. Even from behind, I was sure it was Quil, though he looked bigger than the last time I'd seen him. What was with these Quileute boys? Were they feeding them experimental growth hormones? I crossed over to the wrong side of the road to stop next to him. He looked up when the roar of my truck approached. Quil's expression frightened me more than it surprised me. His face was bleak, brooding, his forehead creased with worry. â€Å"Oh, hey, Bella,† he greeted me dully. â€Å"Hi, Quil Are you okay?† He stared at me morosely. â€Å"Fine.† â€Å"Can I give you a ride somewhere?† I offered. â€Å"Sure, I guess,† he mumbled. He shuffled around the front of the truck and opened the passenger door to climbin. â€Å"Where to?† â€Å"My house is on the north side, back behind the store,† he told me. â€Å"Have you seen Jacob today.† The question burst from me almost before he'd finished speaking. I looked at Quil eagerly, waiting for his answer. He stared out the windshield for a second before he spoke. â€Å"From a distance,† he finally said. â€Å"A distance?† I echoed. â€Å"I tried to follow themhe was with Embry.† His voice was low, hard to hear over the engine. I leaned closer. â€Å"I know they saw me. But they turned and just disappeared into the trees. I don't think they were aloneI think Sam and his crew might have been with them. â€Å"I've been stumbling around in the forest for an hour, yelling for them. I just barely found the road again when you drove up.† â€Å"So Sam did get to him.† The words were a little distortedmy teeth were gritted together. Quil stared at me. â€Å"You know about that.?† I nodded. â€Å"Jake told me before.† â€Å"Before,† Quil repeated, and sighed. â€Å"Jacob's just as bad as the others now?† â€Å"Never leaves Sam's side.† Quil turned his head and spit out the open window. â€Å"And before thatdid he avoid everyone? Was he acting upset?† His voice was low and rough. â€Å"Not for as long as the others. Maybe one day. Then Sam caught up with him.† â€Å"What do you think it is? Drugs or something?† â€Å"I can't see Jacob or Embry getting into anything like that but what do I know? What else could it be? And why aren't the old people worried?† He shook his head, and the fear showed in his eyes now. â€Å"Jacob didn't want to be a part of this cult. I don't understand what could change him.† He stared at me, his face frightened. â€Å"I don't want to be next.† My eyes mirrored his fear. That was the second time I'd heard it described as a cult. I shivered. â€Å"Are your parents any help?† He grimaced. â€Å"Right. My grandfather's on the council with Jacob's dad. Sam Uley is the best thing that ever happened to this place, as far as he's concerned.† We stared at each other for a prolonged moment. We were in La Push now, and my truck was barely crawling along the empty road. I could see the village's only store not too far ahead. â€Å"I'll get out now,† Quil said. â€Å"My house is right over there.† He gestured toward the small wooden rectangle behind the store. I pulled over to the shoulder, and he jumped out. â€Å"I'm going to go wait for Jacob,† I told him in a hard voice. â€Å"Good luck.† He slammed the door and shuffled forward along the road, his head bent forward, his shoulders slumped. Quil's face haunted me as I made a wide U-turn and headed back toward the Blacks'. He was terrified of being next. What was happening here? I stopped in front of Jacob's house, killing the motor and rolling down the windows. It was stuffy today, no breeze. I put my feet up on the dashboard and settled in to wait. A movement flashed in my peripheral visionI turned and spotted Billy looking at me through the front window with a confused expression. I waved once and smiled a tight smile, but stayed where I was. His eyes narrowed; he let the curtain fall across the glass. I was prepared to stay as long as it took, but I wished I had something to do. I dug up a pen out of the bottom of my backpack, and an old test. I started to doodle on the back of the scrap. I'd only had time to scrawl one row of diamonds when there was a sharp tap against my door. I jumped, looking up, expecting Billy. â€Å"What are you doing here, Bella.'† Jacob growled. I stared at him in blank astonishment. Jacob had changed radically in the last weeks since I'd seen him. The first thing I noticed was his hairhis beautiful hair was all gone, cropped quite short, covering his head with an inky gloss like black satin. The planes of his face seemed to have hardened subtly, tightened aged. His neck and his shoulders were different, too, thicker somehow. His hands, where they gripped the window frame, looked enormous, with the tendons and veins more prominent under the russet skin. But the physical changes were insignificant. It was his expression that made him almost completely unrecognizable. The open, friendly smile was gone like the hair, the warmth in his dark eyes altered to a brooding resentment that was instantly disturbing. There was a darkness in Jacob now. Like my sun had imploded. â€Å"Jacob?† I whispered. He just stared at me, his eyes tense and angry. I realized we weren't alone. Behind him stood four others; all tall and russet-skinned, black hair chopped short just like Jacob's. They could have been brothersI couldn't even pick Embry out of the group. The resemblance was only intensified by the strikingly similar hostility in every pair of eyes. Every pair but one. The oldest by several years, Sam stood in the very back, his face serene and sure. I had to swallow back the bile that rose in my throat. I wanted to take a swing at him. No, I wanted to do more than that. More than anything, I wanted to be fierce and deadly, someone no one would dare mess with. Someone who would scare Sam Uley silly. I wanted to be a vampire. The violent desire caught me off guard and knocked the wind out of me. It was the most forbidden of all wisheseven when I only wished it for a malicious reason like this, to gain an advantage over an enemybecause it was the most painful. That future was lost to me forever, had never really been within my grasp. I scrambled to gain control of myself while the hole in my chest ached hollowly. â€Å"What do you want?† Jacob demanded, his expression growing more resentful as he watched the play of emotion across my face. â€Å"I want to talk to you,† I said in a weak voice. I tried to focus, but I was still reeling against the escape of my taboo dream. â€Å"Go ahead,† he hissed through his teeth. His glare was vicious. I'd never seen him look at anyone like that, least of all me. It hurt with a surprising intensitya physical pain, a stabbing in my head. â€Å"Alone!† I hissed, and my voice was stronger. He looked behind him, and I knew where his eyes would go. Every one of them was turned for Sam's reaction. Sam nodded once, his face unperturbed. He made a brief comment in an unfamiliar, liquid languageI could only be positive that it wasn't French or Spanish, but I guessed that it was Quileute. He turned and walked into Jacob's house. The others, Paul, Jared, and Embry, I assumed, followed him in. â€Å"Okay.† Jacob seemed a bit less furious when the others were gone. His face was a little calmer, but also more hopeless. His mouth seemed permanently pulled down at the corners. I took a deep breath. â€Å"You know what I want to know.† He didn't answer. He just stared at me bitterly. I stared back and the silence stretched on. The pain in his face unnerved me. I felt a lump beginning to build in my throat. â€Å"Can we walk?† I asked while I could still speak. He didn't respond in any way; his face didn't change. I got out of the car, feeling unseen eyes behind the windows on me, and started walking toward the trees to the north. My feet squished in the damp grass and mud beside the road, and, as that was the only sound, at first I thought he wasn't following me. But when I glanced around, he was right beside me, his feet having somehow found a less noisy path than mine. I felt better in the fringe of trees, where Sam couldn't possibly be watching. As we walked, I struggled for the right thing to say, but nothing came. I just got more and more angry that Jacob had gotten sucked in that Billy had allowed this that Sam was able to stand there so assured and calm Jacob suddenly picked up the pace, striding ahead of me easily with his long legs, and then swinging around to face me, planting himself in my path so I would have to stop too. I was distracted by the overt grace of his movement. Jacob had been nearly as klutzy as me with his never-ending growth spurt. When did that changed? But Jacob didn't give me time to think about it. â€Å"Let's get this over with,† he said in a hard, husky voice. I waited. He knew what I wanted. â€Å"It's not what you think.† His voice was abruptly weary. â€Å"It's not what I thoughtI was way off.† â€Å"So what is it, then?† He studied my face for a long moment, speculating. The anger never completely left his eyes. â€Å"I can't tell you,† he finally said. My jaw tightened, and I spoke through my teeth. â€Å"I thought we were friends.† â€Å"We were.† There was a slight emphasis on the past tense. â€Å"But you don't need friends anymore,† I said sourly. â€Å"You have Sam. Isn't that niceyou've always looked up to him so much.† â€Å"I didn't understand him before.† â€Å"And now you've seen the light. Hallelujah.† â€Å"It wasn't like I thought it was. This isn't Sam's fault. He's helping me as much as he can.† His voice turned brittle and he looked over my head, past me, rage burning out from his eyes. â€Å"He's helping you,† I repeated dubiously. â€Å"Naturally.† But Jacob didn't seem to be listening. He was taking deep, deliberate breaths, trying to calm himself. He was so mad that his hands were shaking. â€Å"Jacob, please,† I whispered â€Å"Won't you tell me what happened? Maybe I can help.† â€Å"No one can help me now.† The words were a low moan; his voice broke. â€Å"What did he do to you?† I demanded, tears collecting in my eyes. I reached out to him, as I had once before, stepping forward with my arms wide. This time he cringed away, holding his hands up defensively. â€Å"Don't touch me,† he whispered. â€Å"Is Sam catching?† I mumbled. The stupid tears had escaped the corners of my eyes. I wiped them away with the back of my hand, and folded my arms across my chest. â€Å"Stop blaming Sam.† The words came out fast, like a reflex. His hands reached up to twist around the hair that was no longer there, and then fell limply at his sides. â€Å"Then who should I blame?† I retorted. He halfway smiled; it was a bleak, twisted thing. â€Å"You don't want to hear that.† â€Å"The hell I don't!† I snapped. â€Å"I want to know, and I want to know now.† â€Å"You're wrong,† he snapped back. â€Å"Don't you dare tell me I'm wrongI'm not the one who got brainwashed! Tell me now whose fault this all is, if it's not your precious Sam!† â€Å"You asked for it,† he growled at me, eyes glinting hard. â€Å"If you want to blame someone, why don't you point your finger at those filthy, reeking bloodsuckers that you love so much?† My mouth fell open and my breath came out with a whooshing sound. I was frozen in place, stabbed through with his double-edged words. The pain twisted in familiar patterns through my body, the jagged hole ripping me open from the inside out, but it was second place, background music to the chaos of my thoughts. I couldn't believe that I'd heard him correctly. There was no trace of indecision in his face. Only fury. My mouth still hung wide. â€Å"I told you that you didn't want to hear it,† he said. â€Å"I don't understand who you mean,† I whispered. He raised one eyebrow in disbelief. â€Å"I think you understand exactly who I mean. You're not going to make me say it, are you? I don't like hurting you.† â€Å"I don't understand who you mean,† I repeated mechanically. â€Å"The Cullens,† he said slowly, drawing out the word, scrutinizing my face as he spoke it. â€Å"I saw thatI can see in your eyes what it does to you when I say their name.† I shook my head back and forth in denial, trying to clear it at the same time. How did he know this? And how did it have anything to do with Sam's cult? Was it a gang of vampire-haters? What was the point of forming such a society when no vampires lived in Forks anymore? Why would Jacob start believing the stories about the Cullens now, when the evidence of them was long gone, never to return? It took me too long to come up with the correct response. â€Å"Don't tell me you're listening to Billy's superstitious nonsense now,† I said with a feeble attempt at mockery. â€Å"He knows more than I gave him credit for.† â€Å"Be serious, Jacob.† He glared at me, his eyes critical. â€Å"Superstitions aside,† I said quickly. â€Å"I still don't see what you're accusing the†¦ Cullens†wince†of. They left more than half a year ago. How can you blame them for what Sam is doing now?† â€Å"Sam isn't doing anything, Bella. And I know they're gone. But sometimes things are set in motion, and then it's too late.† â€Å"What's set in motion? What's too late? What are you blaming them for?† He was suddenly right in my face, his fury glowing in his eyes. â€Å"For existing,† he hissed. I was surprised and distracted as the warning words came in Edward's voice again, when I wasn't even scared. â€Å"Quiet now, Bella. Don't push him,† Edward cautioned in my ear. Ever since Edward's name had broken through the careful walls I'd buried it behind, I'd been unable to lock it up again. It didn't hurt nownot during the precious seconds when I could hear his voice. Jacob was fuming in front of me, quivering with anger. I didn't understand why the Edward delusion was unexpectedly in my mind. Jacob was livid, but he was Jacob. There was no adrenaline, no danger. â€Å"Give him a chance to calm down,† Edward's voice insisted. I shook my head in confusion. â€Å"You're being ridiculous,† I told them both. â€Å"Fine,† Jacob answered, breathing deeply again. â€Å"I won't argue it with you. It doesn't matter anyway, the damage is done.† â€Å"What damage?† He didn't flinch as I shouted the words in his face. â€Å"Let's head back. There's nothing more to say.† I gaped. â€Å"There's everything more to say! You haven't said anything yet!† He walked past me, striding back toward the house. â€Å"I ran into Quil today,† I yelled after him. He paused midstep, but didn't turn. â€Å"You remember your friend, Quil? Yeah, he's terrified.† Jacob whirled to face me. His expression was pained. â€Å"Quil† was all he said. â€Å"He's worried about you, too. He's freaked out.† Jacob stared past me with desperate eyes. I goaded him further. â€Å"He's frightened that he's next.† Jacob clutched at a tree for support, his face turning a strange shade of green under the red-brown surface. â€Å"He won't be next,† Jacob muttered to himself. â€Å"He can't be. It's over now. This shouldn't still be happening. Why? Why?† His fist slammed against the tree. It wasn't a big tree, slender and only a few feet taller than Jacob. But it still surprised me when tht trunk gave way and snapped off loudly under his blows. Jacob stared at the sharp, broken point with shock that quickly turned to horror. â€Å"I have to get back.† He whirled and stalked away so swiftly that I had to jog to keep up. â€Å"Back to Sam!† â€Å"That's one way of looking at it,† it sounded like he said. He was mumbling and facing away. I chased him back to the truck. â€Å"Wait!† I called as he turned toward the house. He spun around to face me, and I saw that his hands were shaking again. â€Å"Go home, Bella. I can't hang out with you anymore.† The silly, inconsequential hurt was incredibly potent. The tears welled up again. â€Å"Are you breaking up with me?† The words were all wrong, but they were the best way I could think to phrase what I was asking. After all, what Jake and I had was more than any schoolyard romance. Stronger. He barked out a bitter laugh. â€Å"Hardly. If that were the case, I'd say ‘Let's stay friends.' I can't even say that.† â€Å"Jacob why? Sam won't let you have other friends? Please, Jake. You promised. I need you!† The blank emptiness of my life beforebefore Jacob brought some semblance of reason back into itreared up and confronted me. Loneliness choked in my throat. â€Å"I'm sorry, Bella,† Jacob said each word distinctly in a cold voice that didn't seem to belong to him. I didn't believe that this was really what Jacob wanted to say. It seemed like there was something else trying to be said through his angry eyes, but I couldn't understand the message. Maybe this wasn't about Sam at all. Maybe this had nothing to do with the Cullens. Maybe he was just trying to pull himself out of a hopeless situation. Maybe I should let him do that, if that's what was best for him. I should do that. It would be right. But I heard my voice escaping in a whisper. â€Å"I'm sorry that I couldn't before I wish I could change how I feel about you, Jacob.† I was desperate, reaching, stretching the truth so far that it curved nearly into the shape of a lie. â€Å"Maybe maybe I would change,† I whispered. â€Å"Maybe, if you gave me some time just don't quit on me now, Jake. I can't take it.† His face went from anger to agony in a second. One shaking hand reached out toward me. â€Å"No. Don't think like that, Bella, please. Don't blame yourself, don't think this is your fault. This one is all me. I swear, it's not about you.† â€Å"It's not you, it's me,† I whispered. â€Å"There's a new one.† â€Å"I mean it, Bella. I'm not† he struggled, his voice going even huskier as he fought to control his emotion. His eyes were tortured. â€Å"I'm not good enough to be your friend anymore, or anything else. I'm not what I was before. I'm not good.† â€Å"What?† I stared at him, confused and appalled. â€Å"What are you saying? You're much better than I am, Jake. You are good! Who told you that you aren't? Sam? It's a vicious lie, Jacob! Don't let him tell you that!† I was suddenly yelling again. Jacob's face went hard and flat. â€Å"No one had to tell me anything. I know what I am.† â€Å"You're my friend, that's what you are! Jakedon't!† He was backing away from me. â€Å"I'm sorry, Bella,† he said again; this time it was a broken mumble. He turned and almost ran into the house. I was unable to move from where I stood. I stared at the little house; it looked too small to hold four large boys and two larger men. There was no reaction inside. No flutter at the edge of the curtain, no sound of voices or movement. It faced me vacantly. The rain started to drizzle, stinging here and there against my skin. I couldn't take my eyes off the house. Jacob would come back. He had to. The rain picked up, and so did the wind. The drops were no longer falling from above; they slanted at an angle from the west. I could smell the brine from the ocean. My hair whipped in my face, sticking to the wet places and tangling in my lashes. I waited. Finally the door opened, and I took a step forward in relief. Billy rolled his chair into the door frame. I could see no one behind him. â€Å"Charlie just called, Bella. I told him you were on your way home.† His eyes were full of pity. The pity made it final somehow. I didn't comment. I just turned robotically and climbed in my truck. I'd left the windows open and the seats were slick and wet. It didn't matter. I was already soaked. Not as bad! Not as bad! my mind tried to comfort me. It was true. This wasn't as bad. This wasn't the end of the world, not again. This was just the end of what little peace there was left behind. That was all. Not as bad, I agreed, then added, but bad enough. I'd thought Jake had been healing the hole in meor at least plugging it up, keeping it from hurting me so much. I'd been wrong. He'd just been carving out his own hole, so that I was now riddled through like Swiss cheese. I wondered why I didn't crumble into pieces. Charlie was waiting on the porch. As I rolled to a stop, he walked out to meet me. â€Å"Billy called. He said you got in fight with Jakesaid you were pretty upset,† he explained as he opened my door for me. Then he looked at my face. A kind of horrified recognition registered in his expression. I tried to feel my face from the inside out, to know what he was seeing. My face felt empty and cold, and I realized what it would remind him of. â€Å"That's not exactly how it happened,† I muttered. Charlie put his arm around me and helped me out of the car. He didn't comment on my sodden clothes. â€Å"Then what did happen'† he asked when we were inside. He pulled the afghan off the back of the sofa as he spoke and wrapped it around my shoulders. I realized I was shivering still. My voice was lifeless. â€Å"Sam Uley says Jacob can't be my friend anymore.† Charlie shot me a strange look. â€Å"Who told you that?† â€Å"Jacob,† I stated, though that wasn't exactly what he'd said. It was still true. Charlie's eyebrows pulled together. â€Å"You really think there's something wrong with the Uley kid?† â€Å"I know there is. Jacob wouldn't tell me what, though.† I could hear the water from my clothes dripping to the floor and splashing on the linoleum. â€Å"I'm going to go change.† Charlie was lost in thought. â€Å"Okay,† he said absently. I decided to take a shower because I was so cold, but the hot water didn't seem to affect the temperature of my skin. I was still freezing when I gave up and shut the water off. In the sudden quiet, I could hear Charlie talking to someone downstairs. I wrapped a towel around me, and cracked the bathroom door. Charlie's voice was angry. â€Å"I'm not buying that. It doesn't make any sense.† It was quiet then, and I realized he was on the phone. A minute passed. â€Å"Don't you put this on Bella!† Charlie suddenly shouted. I jumped. When he spoke again, his voice was careful and lower. â€Å"Bella's made it very clear all along that she and Jacob were just friends Well, if that was it, then why didn't you say so at first? No, Billy, I think she's right about this Because I know my daughter, and if she says Jacob was scared before† He was cut off mid-sentence, and when he answered he was almost shouting again. â€Å"What do you mean I don't know my daughter as well as I think I do!† He listened for a brief second, and his response was almost too low for me to hear. â€Å"If you think I'm going to remind her about that, then you had better think again. She's only just starting to get over it, and mostly because of Jacob, I think. If whatever Jacob has going on with this Sam character sends her back into that depression, then Jacob is going to have to answer to me. You're my friend, Billy, but this is hurting my family.† There was another break for Billy to respond. â€Å"You got that rightthose boys set one toe out of line and I'm going to know about it. We'll be keeping an eye on the situation, you can be sure of that.† He was no longer Charlie; he was Chief Swan now. â€Å"Fine. Yeah. Goodbye.† The phone slammed into the cradle. I tiptoed quickly across the hall into my room. Charlie was muttering angrily in the kitchen. So Billy was going to blame me. I was leading Jacob on and he'd finally had enough. It was strange, for I'd feared that myself, but after the last thing Jacob had said this afternoon, I didn't believe it anymore. There was much more to this than an unrequited crush, and it surprised me that Billy would stoop to claiming that. It made me think that whatever secret they were keeping was bigger than I'd been imagining. At least Charlie was on my side now. I put my pajamas on and crawled into bed. Life seemed dark enough at the moment chat I let myself cheat. The holeholes nowwere already aching, so why not? I pulled out the memorynor a real memory that would hurt too much, but the false memory of Edward's voice in my mind this afternoonand played it over and over in my head until I fell asleep with the tears still streaming calmly down my empty face. It was a new dream tonight. Rain was falling and Jacob was walking soundlessly beside me, though beneath my feet the ground crunched like dry gravel. But he wasn't my Jacob; he was the new, bitter, graceful Jacob. The smooth suppleness of his walk reminded me of someone else, and, as I watched, his features started to change. The russet color of his skin leached away, leaving his face pale white like bone. His eyes turned gold, and then crimson, and then back to gold again. His shorn hair twisted in the breeze, turning bronze where the wind touched it. And his face became so beautiful that it shattered my heart. I reached for him, but he took a step away, raising his hands like a shield. And then Edward vanished. I wasn't sure, when I woke in the dark, if I'd just begun crying, or if my tears had run while I slept and simply continued now. I stared at my dark ceiling. I could feel that it was the middle of the nightI was still half-asleep, maybe more than half. I closed my eyes wearily and prayed for a dreamless sleep. That's when I heard the noise that must have wakened me in the first place. Something sharp scraped along the length of my window with a high-pitched squeal, like fingernails against the glass.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Acquired capability and skills Essay

Looking at my overall capability and skills acquired in my current academic class, I argue that I had improved a lot since I started taking this course. The activities the professor provided gave me the opportunity to recognize my strengths and weaknesses in composition and other elements significant in completing and creating a good paper. Given this idea, I seek to elaborate on areas that I had sought to improve on and other specific elements that need further attention. At the same time, to support these claims, I shall provide several examples from my previous works to highlight changes that occurred. One relevant element in academic writing is the creation of thesis statement. This sentence/s provides readers direction of the topic and helps them better understand the relevance of the subject (UNC, p. 1). Seeing this, our professor taught us that creating thesis statement must then encompass all of the paper and effectively summarize and point out the arguments presented in a particular paper. Due to this, my first intention was creating such statement and find ways to persuade, entice or provide information to readers. Looking at my compositions, it can be seen that I had significantly changed the way I approached creating thesis statements. In my earlier compositions, these statements are either too vague for readers to comprehend or just implied in the paper. Due to this, I had to make the necessary adjustments to improve the way I compose such. However, this problem has been addressed accordingly in my last paper. In here, I placed the statement at the end of the paper which says that â€Å"The growing problem of poverty simply created the other problems concerning other facets of life; environmental issues, urban housing, health issues, corruption, and the like† (The Slum Residents Feed Off From Danger, p. 4). Seeing this, I feel that I need to improve in the way I create thesis statements. This is to further create impact in my papers and foster deeper understanding on my readers. Whether it is an informational or persuasive, I must find ways to align my paper accordingly to my given thesis statement. Another area that I had seen myself improve is the creation of supporting details to assist my given thesis statement. I had learned in class that for a paper to be academic, it must be able to provide details that will either supplement or sustain the arguments provided in the main idea. That is why, during the course of activities, I had tried to find ways to align my paper to the given topic I chose. For example, the flyer I created concerning malnutrition sought to bridge together the idea of how this issue has affected many and what ways can one try to address the issue. Assessing my current capabilities as far as this facet is concerned, I feel that I still need to improve in the way I link my supporting details to my main idea. This is because there are still several non-related topics that get inserted within my paper. At the same time, I must make sure that these details correlate and synchronize effectively within my work. By actively doing this, I can give readers an easier time in understanding and comprehending my overall intention for writing the paper. Introduction is also a vital element in the creation of an academic paper. This is because it gives readers the ability to become aware of either a backgrounder or the topic discussed in the paper. Having an effective introduction can entice readers to read the article and help them become acquainted with the issue given (UNC, p. 1). Looking at my personal experience in generating introductions, I feel that I had made considerable progress. Though at first this may seem to be the most difficult part of the paper to write, I sought out different strategies that can help me maximize my ability to create a good academic paper. Looking at my compositions, there is one paper that I feel provided a good opening for my paper. Since the topic I am talking about revolves around contact zones, I began my paper by describing the idea for readers to actively decipher what to expect in the paper. It mentions: It is important to understand that the social construction of racial, ethnic, and hierarchical differences, whether physical or cultural, exist as a human experience in the form of contact zones. (American Society and Contact Zones, p. 1). Thus, assessing my capabilities in this facet, I feel that I had made improvements in the way I construct introductory sentences that bridge the main idea or topic to the readers. However, I still feel that there are still setbacks that I need to address to be able to maximize my ability in creating effective statements. I need to make sure each time that this assertion coincides with what I want the readers to make sense of. As far as creating conclusions are concerned, throughout the duration of the course, I had tried to improve on the way I compose these statements. It has been taught that is necessary that I make a striking ending assertion so that it can stick to the mind of readers. Allowing these things to happen can help increase the strength of the paper and further justify the arguments I presented. Analyzing my success in doing this, I feel that I still need to improve in the way I do this because my ideas only try to point out again what I wrote in the previous sections (e. g. Global Community and American Society). Rather than just restating what I mentioned before, I must also highlight the overall stand of the paper and signify the justifications for advocating such belief. Lastly, I had also learned that my conclusion must not end in conveying another topic because it can make the readers confused and think that this is just another part of the paper. Structure, organization and coherence are the next elements I wish to evaluate myself on. These three factors also contribute to the ability of an academic paper to convey information and insights to readers. By taking into consideration the relevance of these ideas, I can increase the ability of people to actively learn from the process and prevent concepts and arguments to be scattered (Darmouth, p. 1). Assessing my growth in the element of structure, I feel that I have shown great strength in making sure that my composition fit a particular structure in the paper. In here, I approached each research in a different manner depending on the scope and tone that I wish to convey. For example, in my argumentative essay entitled Global Community, I structured the paper by first pointing out my main argument and then providing justifications and details to support the paper. On the other hand, in my flyer paper, I brought out the thesis statement and provided relevant information associated with the said topic which is malnutrition. Thus, I feel that I had shown advancement as far as this idea is concerned. For coherence, I still feel that I need to focus on increasing and establishing links in every paragraphs of my paper. This is because the ideas I present in every section seem to not directly relate with one another. Such can give my readers a hard time in establishing a link with the main idea presented and the way I seek out to justify each one. Seeing this, I need to come up with good transition statements that can help readers relate the concepts from the previous paragraphs to the next. These statements can either be in sentence pattern or words such as (1) Moreover, (2) Likewise, (3) In addition, etc. This can help supplement the way I address the paper and signify a new set of ideas to be introduced to the reader. Another strategy I wish to explore and improve on is making effective outlines for a specific research/academic paper. I had learned in class that by making outlines, I can effectively and efficiently prevent mistakes in organization and coherence because this can serve as the backbone for the paper. Allowing myself to device an outline for a specific topic, I can insert and attach important items and concepts on categories it best fits. The last part I wish to ponder on revolves around sentence construction, grammar usage and punctuations. Since I am dwelling with academic paper and not a personal blog it is essential that I see to it that my papers are proofread and follow the rules of the English language. This can then help me hone my grasp of the language and apply the standards I had learned. Reviewing my punctuation marks, I feel that I still need to master and learn several elements. This is because, I can see that I still common mistakes in placing periods, semicolons, colons and commas in a sentences. In here, I must review and understand where each one should be placed and under what conditions can they be only applied. Due to this, I feel that I had only satisfactorily achieved this element and needs to be further improved. As far as grammar usage is concerned, I also consider myself satisfactory because I still have to improve on the words I use in a specific sentence or paragraph. Since these words convey meaning in a particular argument or statement, it is essential that I choose the idea that best fits the description. Though I also learned that using simple words is good, however I must also make sure that these things never get repeated over and over in a particular paragraph. In the end, I feel that the subject has given me new avenues to improve and develop. Comparing my previous compositions, I had seen myself acquire new ideas and skills that can help boost my ability to write academic paper. However, I must also recognize that there are still elements that I need to work on. By constantly working and honing these things, I can maximize my ability and skills to serve my purpose not only in this subject but also for my own personal growth. Works Cited Darmouth. edu Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. 2005 accessed 1 June 2009 from UNC. edu Introductions. 2007 accessed 1 June 2009 from UNC. edu Thesis Statements. 2007 accessed 1 June 2009 from

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Assignment 2 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

2 - Assignment Example Professional ethics for a sales person means honesty and integrity and is a stepping stone towards success but there are certain issues and dilemmas surrounding it (Thesis) In Today’s competitive world, the customer attention is not an easy attainable aspect. Sales people being highly interactive with public need to maintain their identity . People have a notion that sales persons lie mostly and distort facts and figures to get more sales. So this is a professional feed which need utmost truthfulness and ethical conduct. However, a complete honest approach is not suggested as every business has its secrets and sales tactics. Nevertheless, the conducts need to keep in consideration that the interests of customer and employer are not violated. Sales persons need to protect the trust of all parties concerned with business. As per (Dave) â€Å"The ethical salesperson will correct the customer and lose the immediate gain that the sale would have brought. The payoff, however, is the long-term gain in your reputation for integrity†. However, the current business world has issues and dilemmas regarding professional ethics. Professional ethics is the rules governing conduct, relationship and transaction in an organization. The ethics of a professional gains the confidence and reputation of employer, colleagues and public. According to (Reeder 108-110)â€Å" Professional ethics concerns ‘those norms, values, and principles that should govern the professional conduct†. Professional ethics is the set personal, organizational and corporate behavior standards expected from professionals. In sales profession, employees have a responsibility towards their client to deliver safe choices regarding products and services. They need to inform and treat the customer with utmost respect, dignity and honor. The sales professional should not manipulate facts for getting

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Ancient History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ancient History - Essay Example This study aptly discusses the male mistreatment such as verbal and physical mistreatment of Medea and Lucretia, two outstanding classical mythical female figures. There are various factors that account for the differences in responses by the two women. Below are factors that lead to Medea murdering Glauce the new bride and her children. To begin with Medea was a foreigner, and a barbarian which did not mean much to her Greek husband Jason. Medea’s husband could not refuse the opportunity to wed the king’s daughter Glauce, thus, emotionally ill-treated Medea by rejecting and verbally abusing her. Medea rings a bell to Jason for having left her people to stay with him. Lucretia was a virtuous woman, and could not tolerate the humiliation of being a rape prey. Lucretia killed herself to testify her purity of being raped by Sexton Tarquinius. She kills herself to illicit sympathy, and ensures that revenge was accorded to her. She deems that no good can transpire to a woman without any reputation. She might have killed herself to uphold her honour and stand up against men as a woman in a male dominated period. Sexton physically abused Lucretia by raping her, and treated her with hostility by threatening to kill her (Langlands, 87). The two women reacted on inferior treatment by men in their individual countries. Medea’s response of having reprisal on her husband is not for the greater interest of all the women in Greece, but for her own painful revenge on her husband. Medea is a temperamental woman who can not endure the jealousy, and anger after her husband tells her that he would make her his mistress. This shows men dominance, since he betrayed her subsequent to her forfeiting everything as well as killing her brother, and leaving her country for him. Her reaction is, therefore, mainly personal. Lucretia’s death is not retribution it is an act of sacrifice for social justice. Instead of revenging her rape she decides to bring the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Financial crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Financial crisis - Essay Example The global north was after this period walking on a financial tight rope. With the resource utilization reaching the maximum limits compounded further by a relatively high wage rate, most enterprises were feeling the pinch in the reduction of their rates of return. There are also indications that the credit crisis began in the developing nations that had began to experience financial turbulence in the early years before it eventually impacted the giant economies like the United States. With respect to these revelations and more, this paper therefore examines the causes of the credit crisis that affected the world and which its effects are yet to be fully mitigated. This essay will closely look at the major influencing factors in the global economy and that of the United States that led to the credit crisis that was experienced in the year 2004. As a precursor, the two major reasons for this crisis were internal policy framework and external influence as discussed below. Deregulation: Shadow Banking and Mortgage Securitization The main internal factor was that of the policy instruments by the government that led to further instability in the financial sector of the economy that was already unhealthy. The period before the crisis was characterized by a highly capitalist tendency that favored lack of regulation in the financial sector. Blundell-Wignall, Atkinson and Lee (3), state that by the year 2004 there were four key crisis-causing factors that came into perspective. First, the then president’s policy of making mortgages cheaper to low-income household. Secondly, the increased restriction of the sole mortgaging authority that made banks venture more into the sector and thereby increasing low value lending. Third was the publication of the Basel II accord that encouraged banks to get involved in other non-trading activities. Finally, the investment banks were given more freedom through ‘consolidated entities program’. In effect, this led to instability of economies mostly in the northern parts of the globe that depended highly on export surpluses. This created some sort of instability as Kapadia and Jayadev (35) indicate. They further state that the creation of a benchmark of currency and the isolation of the United States’ consumption sector as the last in consideration when exporting resulted into instability in the world economy. The effects of deregulation were mostly felt in the banking sector. First, the impact of disallowing the regulations that stated that demand deposits accrued interests. Secondly, the mortgage interests with relation to residential properties were lowered creating a boom in the housing sector through increased mortgage lending. Lastly, the deposit taking institutions were allowed access to the Federal Reserve through a credit window that in turn allowed non-banking institutions into the financial market that was already unstable. It was therefore inevitable that deregulation was boun d to create ‘indiscipline’ in the financial sector and that was the case. For instance, lack of proper monitoring of the banking institutions was creating an environment prone to unscrupulous deals that amounted to lose invested funds that created a recipe for future collapse of the whole lending system. Moreover, the mortgage sector was also affected

Monday, August 26, 2019

Investigate the Potential Opportunity of Marketing This Brand In the Assignment

Investigate the Potential Opportunity of Marketing This Brand In the UK for a Pharmaceutical Company - Assignment Example Other than this, it also helps in identifying the defects, deficiencies as well as the problems present within the marketing activities of the organization so that it might be easily reduced. Thus, marketing audit helps in analyzing three areas such as external and internal marketing environment as well as current marketing strategies. External marketing audit The pharmacy market of UK by PESTEL In this age of globalization and industrialization, advancement is witnessed in each and every segment. Similarly, the organizations operating under the umbrella of pharmacy market also amplified its market share and growth rate with a rapid pace as compared to any other organizations. Due to which, its annual growth rate (CAGR) enhanced by 15.7% as well as profit margin increased by 21.6 % in the year 2012- 2013. This proved extremely beneficial for the economy of UK thereby rebounding itself from global economic downturn. It became possible due to the huge contribution of the Pharmacy compa nies towards the gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national product (GNP) of the economy. Other than this, due to the improvement of the per-capital income of the individual of United Kingdom, the purchasing power of the customers also increased. This proved extremely effective for the Pharmacy organizations thereby amplifying its profit margin and productivity to a certain extent as compared to others. Moreover, the implementation of the varied policies of the government in order to make the requirements of healthcare more affordable and accessible, also acted as a boon for the pharmaceutical organizations. Due to which the net income and revenues of the organizations operating under... This paper stresses that the products of Bursti in the competitive market of UK, it’s extremely essential to follow competitive pricing strategy. This is because; without following such strategy, Bursti might not be able to establish the brand image and dependency within the minds of the customers. As a result, the profit margin and total sale of the products of the brand might not get enhanced that might hinder the goodwill of the organization. Other than this, Bursti might try to offer high attention over advertising so as to increase the level of awareness of the customers. This might prove effective for the organization in enhancing its market share and status This report makes a conclusion that the pattern of disorders is also changing rapidly and so at times the medical practitioners fail to analyse the main cause of the disorder. This means, the disorder might be due to genetics, diet, climate or many other factors. So, the organization of Bursti might also try to develop the medicines that might also rectify the disorders arising due to genetics or even diets. Only then it might cope-up with such type of challenges in an effective way thereby amplifying its productivity and brand value. The author of the paper talks that the policies and strategies of the government supporting Pharmacy industries are changing rapidly. Therefore, the organization of Bursti needs to offer the products and its features in such a way so that, it might remain sustained in its position.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Data Model and Data Warehouse Design Architecture & XML Essay

Data Model and Data Warehouse Design Architecture & XML - Essay Example For the purpose of this scenario, the information sources are represented by these operational database systems which are actually relational databases, and are required to be integrated in the data warehouse. Every clinic has also a manager and a number of staff, such as, cleaners, nurses, and etc. Since, data warehouses are capable of handling server tasks connected to querying, therefore, the proposed implementation of data warehouse would support the company’s transactions systems to complete transactions within a desirable time frame by running the reports and queries on a server. Allow the users (company staff) to obtain reports and make queries efficiently as data warehouse gives the user control over the response time by storing the older data and the recent data in well-organized manner. Despite the fact that the company can enjoy many benefits from implementing the proposed implementation, there are some major drawbacks as well which are highlighted in another article at Exforsys (The disadvantages of a data warehouse, n.d.): Since, data warehouse contains historical data about a company’s transactions, the value of this information might be limited because the businesses operating in today’s market are in constant transition, and therefore, it may not be always worthy to use a historical data. The process of extracting, transforming, and loading data from the source systems in real-time can be one of the most challenging tasks for any data warehouse. The ETL process normally requires downtime of the data warehouse, and therefore, it is usually carried out late at night to avoid any inconvenience because users cannot access data warehouse during the process. However, there can’t be any system downtime when the data is being loaded continuously in real-time. Unfortunately, most of the traditional ETL tools and systems are incapable of supporting continuous updates in the data warehouse without

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Geriatrics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Geriatrics - Research Paper Example Any serious attempt at mitigating the detrimental effects of heart disease on cost and health of the population has to ensure certain interventions (Meng, Wamsley, Eggert, & Van Nostrand, 2007, p. 322). These are the systematic application of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies to individuals who are at risk of developing heart disease. Tertiary prevention strategies relate to the provision of adequate treatment for heart disease, and this also comprises of reducing the severity of the ailment and occurrence of complications (Meng, Wamsley, Eggert, & Van Nostrand, 2007, p. 322). Furthermore, it has been projected that there could be a substantial increase in the number of people with heart disease in the coming decades, and in this backdrop, it becomes indispensable to adopt these prevention strategies, without any delay. Although, there has been a reduction in the prevalence of disability, the absolute size of the disabled groups has been projected to surpass the 12 million mark, by the year 2030 (Meng, Wamsley, Eggert, & Van Nostrand, 2007, p. 322). The excessive consumption of alcohol has been seen to increase the risk of medical, functional, and psychological disorders to which the older adults are significantly more susceptible. Quite frequently, the excessive consumption of alcohol is a component of other undesirable traits, such as an inadequate diet, smoking, and obesity (Satre, Gordon, & Weisner, 2007, p. 238). This tends to enhance the cumulative risk, with regard to the development of medical problems. Nevertheless, moderate drinking was seen to provide health benefits. With regard to heart disease, moderate drinking had reduced mortality, in comparison to heavy drinking or abstinence. Thus, alcohol can be beneficial to health if consumed in moderate quantities (Satre, Gordon, & Weisner, 2007, p. 238). As shown by the research of Grant and Harford and other scholars, the abuse of alcohol or its consumption in large quantities, and symptoms of depression or major depressive disorder frequently arise in the later stages of life. In addition, a correlation between the abuse of alcohol and depressive symptoms or major depression has also been reported by some research studies (Choi & Dinitto, 2011, p. 860). This relationship has been seen to affect males, as well as females. However, as shown by Blazer, older females develop depressive symptoms to a greater extent than their male counterparts. At this juncture, it has to be emphasized that the older females, have a much greater proclivity to refrain from drinking. On the few occasions that the older females indulge in drink, they have been seen to imbibe much less than the older males. These findings stress the necessity for further examination, in determining the correlation between alcohol use and depressive symptoms (Choi & Dinitto, 2011, p. 860). In addition, smoking enhances the risk of cancer among the elderly people. Abstinence from smoking, proper nutriti on, and exercise on regular basis promote good health. These elements are considered as good health behaviors, and have the capacity to reduce the likelihood of hospitalization and the risk of death. Moreover, these habits promote the functional and behavioral performance of people of all ages (Fillenbaum, Burchett, Kuchibhatla, Cohen, & Blazer, 2007, p. 73). As such, these habits pro

Friday, August 23, 2019

Language Proficiency Assessments Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Language Proficiency Assessments - Essay Example Two frameworks influence language proficiency assessment processes including planning curriculum, assessment, and instruction. The main elements of the system include English language proficiency standards, language domains, grade level clusters, and language proficiency level. The Language Proficiency Standards reflects the dimensions of acquiring second language anticipated from English language learners in grade levels K-12. Among the five English Language Proficiency Standards, each standard is set to deal with particular contexts namely social and instructional settings, mathematics, social studies and science (Blagojevich, Ruiz & Dunn, 2004). Each individual proficiency standard includes four-language domains namely listening, reading, speaking, and writing. In listening, people should process, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in various situations. In speaking, students should engage in oral communication while reading ensures processing, interpretation and evaluation of written language (Blagojevich, Ruiz & Dunn, 2004). Finally, writing ensures students engage in written communication in various situations. The third element, The Language Proficiency Levels and Performance Definitions, outlines the progression in language development in the acquisition of English as an additional language through five a five-stage process including entering, beginning, developing, expanding, and bridging (Blagojevich, Ruiz & Dunn, 2004). These processes synthesize model performance indicators in each language proficiency level. Finally, the final elements, Model Performance Indicators are measurable indices of the language domains targeting the age and developmental levels of English Language Learners (Blagojevich, Ruiz & Dunn, 2004). These are examples drawn from experiences in other language proficiency assessments and used to augment other systems to improve language proficiency. According to the checklist, assessment problems may emerge in

Medieval Philosophy Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Medieval Philosophy - Assignment Example Hence, metaphysical forces, including heavenly bodies and evil spirits, constrain human desires and create hurdles on the way to getting involved in different activities out of their free will. Furthermore, since the blessings and bounties showered by God upon humans, bring joys in their life, so humans must seek His protection in order to escape misfortunes in life. However, God has also granted powers to the evil forces existing in the universe and has allowed them to hurt and harm the individuals through their trickery. These forces tempt humans to follow their desires without making the adequate judgment between right and wrong. Consequently, there seems to be a high probability of humans to become prey to the evil temptations by extending their wishes and desires to a great extent. As a result, natural forces inflict the humans with deprivations that constraint their free will and limit their actions and conducts for the future days to come on the basis of the foreknowledge the Providence maintains. Question 3 (Answer): Contemporary era theologian and philosopher, Nelson Pike, has critically examined the Boethius’ doctrine regarding omniscience and free will. Since Boethius has submitted his claim that it is omniscience that constrains human free will, no human action is free and independent one in its nature and scope. However, Pike refutes the very notion by declaring it false and against the very evidence altogether. Pike is of the view that since God is all-Knowing and all-Powerful, He has foreknowledge of each and every incident that would happen in the life of every human throughout his life. Pike supports his thesis with several illustrations and examples, in order to clarify his argument regarding the powers granted to humans by the Lord for performing their domestic and professional duties and obligations. If a person, Pike argues, is determined to do something either trivial or important, God certainly maintains foreknowledge of it. Howeve r, He has allowed humans to apply their free will, out of their personal choices, in order to perform their everyday activities without any hurdle or obstacle on the way. In other words, though every incident to be taken place in the world in the life of humans is in the knowledge of God, yet He does not restrict the humans from taking part in individual and collective activities of their choice by constraining each and every human action. On the contrary, He has gifted the humans with the powers to even negate His very existence, as atheist observe, though He has complete foreknowledge of it. If God starts imposing constraints on every human action, then there would neither be any space for the atheists and infidels nor could humans be able to make this world a region where crimes, offenses, sins, and law-breaking occur very frequently. Thus, Pike nullifies Boethius’s doctrine that God’s omniscience limits human actions in such a powerful manner that it destroys the c oncept of free will altogether. However, Boethius does not claim that every human action is barred by the natural regulatory authorities.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Nature of emotions Essay Example for Free

Nature of emotions Essay Compare The Two of Us by Armitage and Havisham by Duffy, paying particular attention to how thoughts and feelings are presented. The two poems by Armitage and Duffy focus specifically on the destructive nature of emotions. The Two of Us focuses on the superficiality of possession whilst Havisham considers the deception of relationships. This brings about both of the speakers and poets feelings. The Two of Us deals with a comparison between two brothers who differ in terms of wealth and professions. There is also a moral to Armitages poem, which emphasises the idea that material goods will be useless in death. This means that the poem is thought provoking. On the other hand, Havisham concentrates on a female speaker who is angry and bitter about a failed relationship, most likely caused from an unfaithful partner. The poet explores themes of jealousy and violence, which gives an interesting twist on Duffys familiar theme of love. Nevertheless, the two poems have similarities in terms of perspective. They both employ the personal pronoun I which expresses the deep individual thoughts and feelings of the speaker. However, The Two of Us also involves the second person pronoun you to express a feeling of accusation and deep resentment. There are several differences in the structure of both poems. The Two of Us has a rhyme scheme, which mirrors the I and you of the poem. However, Havisham is written in free verse, which reflects the spontaneity of the speakers emotions. It also shows that the speaker is lacking control of her own feelings Therefore, The Two of US has a stricter structure to reinforce the divide between the rich brother and the poor one. There are similar aspects of thoughts and feelings in terms of imagery. Both employ colour imagery to depict specific emotions and moods, for example, the colour gold in The Two of Us has connotations of glamour and a degree of luxury. Havisham uses colour in a more traditional and stereotypical sense i. e. dark green pebbles for eyes, this illustrating the speakers envy. However, The two of us is written more uniquely; this shown through the cluster of similes in the fifth stanza; Like Im some cutting taken from the tree Like Im some twig related to the root. The speaker emphasises that they are actually related and could possibly be twins. There are also similarities and differences between the two poems in terms of language. Both use juxtapositions but for different purposes. In The Two of Us it provides a contrast between rich and poor whilst in Havisham in expresses her feelings for her lover, Beloved sweetheart bastard. However, both poems have unique features to portray thoughts and feelings. The pathetic fallacy in The Two of Us allows the reader to empathise towards the poor conditions the speaker lives in; Rain to racket on the metal roof The harsh sounding alliteration makes the weather seem a lot tougher and therefore the conditions he faces a lot tougher. This makes the rich brother a more unlikeable character because he has not helped the poor one. Havisham uses different language techniques to portray the message of the poem. The final stanza shows how hurt and upset the speaker is, Dont think that its only the heart that b-b-b-breaks. This breakdown in language shows that the speaker is sobbing and been affected by the broken relationship. Overall, both poems are successful in presenting the thoughts and feeling of the speakers. They target specific emotions from the reader which aids in the reader understanding the poems.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Marketing Plan of Japanese Steakhouse Benihana

Marketing Plan of Japanese Steakhouse Benihana Benihana a Japanese steakhouse restaurant with hibachi concept commenced in 1964 in West Side, New York. This restaurant was founded by Hiroaki (Rocky) Aoki, an opportunity seeker, who identified the untapped needs in the American restaurant industry after having done a thorough analysis of the market. His concept serve the unfulfilled needs of the market especially the middle-income businessmen by providing exotic surroundings, the authentic Japanese ambiance, as well as offering new experience by having chefs cooked in front of customers. The idea quickly gained the popularity; resulted in high profits and rapid expansion. This service concept brought forth the competitive advantage to Benihana restaurant. By having chefs outside cooking; it allows the restaurant to save labor costs and offer more attentive services. The menu limitation also lowers the costs. The space was fully utilized to maximize the profits. The costs structure and utilization of space will be explained in detailed. Moreover, the highly trained skilled chefs and creative PR and marketing campaign were also the key contribution to the success of the restaurant. Despite the success, the rapid expansion can often time be a problem since, company may not have the resources and the solid plan for the growth strategy. Rocky wanted to diversify his business into retail and fast food chain. In addition, this new innovative service concept may cause confusion as to what the restaurant core product or services really are. This report aims to address the issues mentioned by evaluating Rockys diversification plan, identify the core products and services, come up with alternatives which were first to open new Beni Trendy restaurant which target younger generation and After Benis for dessert and come up with action plan. Issue Statement Rocky Aika is a man of great dreams but his dreams may be too big for him to be able to achieve it. He plans to grow his business to other sections of the market especially the younger generation but in order for Rocky to be able to grow his business and to maximize the profits, the expansion plans need to be strategically revised and planned. Currently, Rocky is planning his diversification strategy, but this has to be evaluated and for the purpose of successfully growing Rocky needs to first understand his business and market. Data Analysis Benihana, a Teppanyaki Japanese restaurant with hibachi concept was a major success. The service concept was new and unique to the market which differentiated itself from the typical existing restaurants. The major differences of the concept were: The restaurant eliminated the back of house conventional kitchen while instead providing hibachi tables with well-trained chefs cooking in front of customers. This concept allows the labor cost to be cut down to 10-12% of gross sales and attentive service. Benihana provided limited menus, which resulted in reduction of food storage and wastage costs. The authentic Japanese ambiance or Japanese touch was brought to the restaurant through importing all furniture from Japan including walls, ceilings, beams and decorations. Benihana better utilize their space. Normal restaurants require 30-35% space for back of the house meanwhile Benihana needed only 22% of the total space. By focusing on the above mentioned points, Benihana was able to reduce their costs, thus become more profitable. For instance, Chicago branch was the most profitable unit with the gross profit around 1.3 million per year. The reason for this was that the managements ability to keep their expenses to a minimal with food 30%, labor 10%, advertising 10%, management 4%, and rent 5 %. Benihana Cost and Typical Restaurant Cost Structure The above income statement shows the profits that Benihana in Chicago was making during the year 1972. Some of the amounts were already given including the gross sales, food and beverage sales, the percentage of food cost, labor cost, advertising costs, management cost, and rent. However, some other items needed to be calculated or assumed such as the percentage of beverage cost, the total sales and the income tax. The gross sales were given to be $1,300,000, thus the food and beverage would be $910,000 and $390,000 respectively. The food costs that are 30% of food sales would give an amount of $273,000 and the beverage costs that was averaged to be 20% of the beverage sales would equal to $78,000. Therefore, the gross profit would equal to gross sales minus total costs of goods sold which is equal to $949,000. The labor, advertising, management and rent expenses are expected to be 10%, 10%, 4% and 5% of gross sales respectively. The expenses were calculated to be $130,000, $130,000, $52,000, and $65,000 which totalled to $377,000 or total operating costs. The net profit before income tax on the other hand is equal to gross profit minus total operating expenses or $949,000 minus $377,000 which gives the value of $572,000. To calculate the net profit after tax, the assumption was made that the income tax was 14% which is based on the percentage of tax that needs to be charged must be given but the case does not give any such information, so for the purpose the assumption assume that the income tax was at 14% so in this case the value would be $80,080 which is $572,000*20/100. So the net profit after tax will be $572,000 minus $80,080 which calculates to $491,920. In order to have a clearer picture of the difference between Benihana and typical restaurant the percentages of each item were compared. The food and beverages sales percentages of Benihana are simlar to that of a typical restaurant which were around 70% for food and 30% for beverages. Nevertheless, the major difference lies in the food and beverage costs which was approximately 50% in Benihana whereas in typical restaurant would be equivalent to 73-88% or about 23-38% higher. The total expenses percentages of Benihana comes up to 29% which composed of labor, advertising, management and rent, meanwhile the operating expenses percentages of a typical restaurant total to 42.25-57%. It is apparent that Benihanas service concept, service operation and its delivery system enable the restaurant to significantly reduce costs and gain higher profits, thereby became more competitive than its competitors. The Chefs Salary Chefs were vital element to the success of the Benihana. Therefore, it is extremely important to estimate the influence of their salaries on the restaurant profitability. The case provided that in one unit there were approximately 30 staff which were 6-8 chefs, 6-8 waitresses, 4-5 managers, 2-3 barman, and about 8-11 bus staff and dishwashers. The total labor cost as calculated above was 10% of gross sales which is equivalent to $130,000 which must be divided among all the employees excluding the managers. In order to estimate the chefs salaries, each employee salaries will be first estimated. The assumption is made that waitresses and barmen would have roughly the same amount of salary which is approximate $3,000-4,000 per person per year or about 2-3% of total labor cost. The 6-11 bus staff and dishwashers could earn around $1,500-3,000 per person per year or 1-2% of total labor cost for each person. Given the assumptions above, the chefs salary would be around $10,000-12,000/year. Benihana Production System Benihana has an efficient process flow from that of the production process to the service delivered to the customer, providing them with the ultimate dining experience. The average dining time period is one hour which does not include the bar time. This identifies the efficiency of the employees, the hibachi style of cooking and seating arrangement. The food is prepared in front of the seated guest and is delivered to them with a personalised service; at the same time ensuring that high quality standards of food production are met. The restaurant has a well-organized layout plan which enhances their service delivery. It has been designed in a very systematic so as to facilitate the smooth flow of the staff and the guest entering the restaurant. The production system has been focused, which can be interpreted to mean, the entire production service within the restaurant from time of bringing the guest and staff together , seating them, taking their order, delivering the food, preparing the food till the time of guest leaving the restaurant. On carefully examination of the layout for the Benihana, it can be seen that the entrance leads directly to the lounge. See Figure 1. The guest can relax and have a drink in the lounge which has a seating capacity of about 50, while a table is being organised for them as the turnover time period ranges to about an hour. They are then escorted to the dining area in batches 4, 8 or 16. The 112 seat restaurant has again been planned with great efficiency. There is one chef and one waitress for every two hibachi tables, thus the designing process has been made keeping this in mind and at the same time this reduces the labour costs. The back area space has been efficiently utilised. The kitchen includes a pre-preparation area, hot area and post production area, which are separated to avoid confusion and chaos. The washing area is close to the kitchen and the restaurant to avoid delay of service. The storage area has enough space to cater to both the kitchen and the beverage areas in addit ion are designed to be easy access to both the areas. At the same time there are a few alterations that can be made to further enhance the process. The entrance for the restaurant consumes a lot of space and can be modified to accommodate more guests in the lounge. The Lounge area setup can be reorganized to accommodate more guest so that if the guests dining in the dining area want to spend some more time in the restaurant by having a few drinks they can thus be escorted to the lounge area, this in turn would also further reduce the turnover time period. The washrooms have been placed quite close to the bar and near the entrance which is extremely far from the dining area so if they are placed in between the lounge and the dining area it would be more convenient for the guest to walk to the location than to go from the dining area and through the lounge at last reaching the washroom. The three poles in between the lounge area can also be an obstacle for the people seated in the area as well as for the employees while delivering their s ervices. Presentation of Solutions The major concerns that were raised by both internal and external parties regarding Benihana business were the expansion strategy, understanding its core business and the sustainability of the business. In order to come up with solutions, one needs to understand the core business by first understanding the market. According to the survey, the main target market of Benihana was middle-income businessmen. The survey also revealed that the number one reason that persuades customers to come to the restaurant is good food or about 46.7% and atmosphere and preparation together came up to about 26.4%. The first time visit percentage is about 34.4%. Thereby, it is led to believe that first time visitors may come because the restaurant provides them with new exotic experiences. Consequently, as they have experienced the food; they were satisfied with the taste, hence second visit. Customers also rated that they would highlight the food 38.2% and preparation 24.6%. From this, one could conclude that the main core products and services of Benihana are the food and the experiences. The sustainability of business issue was also raised by Russ Carpenter. Due to the concept of the restaurant and the limited menus, the long-term competitiveness is questioned. As the business grows, so did the competitors. If new competitors with different concepts come into scene, the sustainability is raised. The limited menu options which although Benihana gave an advantage by reducing the food costs, but would it be enough the changing trends to attract the customers. Once the restaurateur knows that the restaurant is already successful, the management should consider the sustainability of the products and services. Time changes, trends change and people change, thus businesses should come up with innovative plan as a pioneer or expand the line of product for the business growth. If Benihana is considered to be fashionable due to the trend, then they will need to develop a concept for service according to help Benihana to become sustainable. According to Rockys, he planned to diversify into retail sale of Benihana-labeled food label and quick-service operation. Orient Express, their new product lines will be quite innovative and a great potential plan for the future. The Benihana label will enhance the corporate brand, yet increase the brand awareness among the people who have never experienced Benihana. Figure 3 shows Rockys growth strategy. One core product/service and one market Benihana Restaurant Chain for middle-income businessman Sell existing products/service in new geographic market segment Expanding Benihana Restaurants to different part of US through JV and wholly-owned Sell existing core service out of country Expanding Benihana Restaurants to different part of world Conglomerate diversification Expanding to retail and fast food chain, Orient Express Rocky intentionally aimed to appeal the younger generation by investing in the new small units called Orient Express which would be located in gas stations. However, the quick-service units in gas stations did not necessary target the younger generation. Since the gas station is a place that people stop to fill gasoline, use the restrooms or take a rest after a long journey. According Rockys concerns and issued raised by Russ Carpenter the following solutions are suggested: (1) To open a new Benihana which directly targets the younger generation. (2) To diversify the Benihana business to the other business such as Benihana restaurant that sells purely the Japanese style dessert. By doing so, Rocky could direct his business towards the group he wanted to attract, at the same utilize the companys core competencies which were the quality food and authentic Japanese experience. The dessert restaurant would allow Benihana to diversify into the potential market which is females which currently only constituted only 28.6% of Benihana restaurant according to the survey. The costs of training and staff would be reduced as the operation would be similar to that of the existing ones. Figure : Proposed growth strategy. Adapted from Carmen Langeard (1986) One core product/service and one market Benihana Restaurant Chain for middle-income businessman Sell existing products/service in new geographic market segment Expanding Benihana Restaurants to different part of US through JV and wholly-owned Sell existing core service out of country Expanding Benihana Restaurants to different part of world Conglomerate diversification Expanding to retail, but NO ORIENT EXPRESS Concentric diversification Beni Trendy: targets 18-30 people After Benis: desserts penetrate into younger and female market Recommendation The alternative to the solution mentioned above is opening a new unit which targets only the young generation (18-30 years old) as a separate clientele from existing Benihana. The unit will be named Benihana Trendy. This unit will create a completely different experience from original Benihana, but at the same time the customers still can perceive the feeling that this is Benihana. Benihana Trendy would still sell grilled steaks, however of different price and quality. The atmosphere would be created to attract new generation who seek for thrill and exotic experiences at lower prices. For example, the customer can cook with chef upon reservation. The menu of self-cooking might be added in the menu. The interior will be designed to facilitate the trendy atmosphere that appeals the young generation. The furniture did not have to be imported from Japan, hence cost saving. Another diversified alternative is creating a separate dessert unit which is called After Benis. The name comes from the idea that people can come to have dessert after having main course from Benihana or Benihana Trendy The ideal is the location of After Benis should be located as near as possible to Benihana, otherwise the name would not be quite suitable. The concept of this unit would also be the cooking show but the chef is not allocated at each table. The cooking show from chef will be set in the area that everyone can see, so the tables are not equipped with the hot stove. The dessert menu will be designed to incorporate the cooking show; for instance, the pancake, the fried ice-cream (mixing two or more ice-cream in one dish), and etc. As Japanese food culture is very delicate, the menu will be deliberately invented by design of Japanese chef. This also aims to attract younger generation as well as females segment. The decoration would be homely, but keep the trendy element. By having these two new concepts, it is believed that Rocky can best utilize his resources and core competency. This would help him save costs. In addition, he can tailor these new products and services to the new market segments which he had not yet tapped into. This will provide the opportunity for him to expand his business or concentric diversification, which is believe to be less risky than conglomerate diversification which he had initially planned. It is believed that this would be a good investment and diversification plan for Benihana. Action Plan For Benihana Trendy and After Benis Goals: To open Beni Trendy within 1 year with the budget of approximately around $US 210,000 To open After Benis within 1 year with the budget of approximately around $US 150,000 This is from the assumption that to open up new Beni Trendy will cost 70% and After Benis will cost 50% of set up cost for Benihana unit which is $US 300,000. Actions: Market research Define Five Ps of services Procurers, (customers) Product, (service concept) Policies Practice (operation strategy) Place Plant (service delivery system) Providers (servers)Actual Construction of the site Construction Hire The thorough concept is defined to serve the target market. Key factors are identified. 1. What products to sell. 2. What should the ambiance of the restaurant? 3. What should be on the menu none Define (Policies and Practices) Operation Strategy Within 1 month Rocky, Bill Susha, Allen Saito Time Concrete concept formed. Eg. The rules and regulations of the company that is accepted by all parties none Finding (Place and Plant) Restaurant location Within 2 months Rocky Time, connections with people, capital To find the right location to have the restaurant and to negotiate and sign contract with the landlord. none Design of the restaurant Within 3 months however alternations could be made within the project period. Rocky, Glen Simones and Interior Designer Floor plan To come up with the floor plan and interior design concept that fit the service concept $US50,000 Construction of restaurant Within 3 months External contractors Time and finances Find the right contractor and construct the restaurant $US120,000 Find Suppliers Within 2 month Bill Susha and Allen Saito Time Found the best suppliers of the raw materials which the price reflects the quality none Hire staff Within 2 months Restaurant Manager Time To find the quality staff that match the culture of the restaurant. none Train staff Within 1 month Restaurant manager Time and finance $US 2,000

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Impact Of Self Help Groups Economics Essay

Impact Of Self Help Groups Economics Essay Self-Help Groups means a group of 10-20 members which may or may not be registered representing financial intermediation, but the financial intermediation is not the only primary objective of the groups. The motive is to combine the access to low-cost financial services with a process of self management and development. NGOs or Government agencies usually form and support these SHGs. The members of these groups save the amount which is used for loans. Inspite of considerable expansion in the branch network, a large share of Indias population continuous to remain outside the formal banking system. Due to widespread rural bank branch network, the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme is very suitable to the Indian context. Although various alternative ways are being experimented in order to meet the objectives of financial inclusion. The SHG-Bank Linkage Programme is considered a most successful, promising and widely accepted model in India. Self Help Group Bank Linkage Programme- a pilot project started by NABARD is widely accepted model as one of the largest and successful one in the world. The present study is analytical and based upon secondary data which has been collected from different published reports, journals and existing available literature. The objective of this study is to evaluate the progress and impact of self help group bank linkage programme. Key Words: Growth, Models, Self-Help Group, SHG-Bank Linkage Programme. Introduction The Self-Help Group (SHG) movement originated in Bangladesh under the Leadership of Noble Laureate Mohamed Yunus. It is a noble mission- an innovative concept that has its roots in Bangladesh and has touched every part of the globe. In order to achieve the mission of reaching those families who did not access to credit by any formal financial institution and, therefore, were dependent on informal sources and moneylenders, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) introduced the SHG Bank Linkage Programme as a pilot project in 1992. Thereafter, RBI had advised commercial banks to participate actively in this programme. Subsequently, this programme was further extended to all Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and cooperative banks. SHGs through the network of commercial banks, RRBs cooperative banks, NABARD and NGOs has been largely supply driven as well as a recent approach in the provision of financial services to the poor. This paper is an attempt to analyse the SH Gs movement in India as these are helpful in order to alleviate poverty and women empowerment. The present study is analytical and based upon secondary data which has been collected from different published reports, journals and existing available literature. The objective of this study is to evaluate the progress of self help group bank linkage programme. Self Help Group Self Help Group means a group of 15-20 members which have become a common vehicle of development covering various development programmes. Financial intermediation is not the only objective but the purpose behind this is to combine the access to low cost financial services with a process of self management and development. SHGs are usually formed and supported by NGOs or Government agencies. SHGs are small, informal and homogenous groups of not more than20 members each. Any group larger than the size of 20 members has to be registered under Indian legal system. So it is recommended to be informal to keep them away from bureaucracy, corruption, unnecessary administrative expenditure and profit motive. Groups are also expected to be homogenous so that members can participate freely without any fear as well as conflicting interest. SHGs have also emerged as a powerful device and an effective medium for delivering credit to the poor in the rural economy. It helps in poverty alleviation an d women empowerment. Self-help groups (SHGs) movement has triggered off a silent revolution in the rural credit delivery system in India. SHG Bank Linkage Programme The Self-Help Group Bank Linkage Programme (SHBL) which started as a pilot programme in 1992 has developed at a very fast rate with time. SHG-Bank Linkage Programme was started on the basis of the recommendation of S K Kalia Committee. While the SHG-bank linkage Programme has experienced exponential growth over the past decade, there remain large regional disparities in the growth of the SHG movement with limited progress in certain regions. Though the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme contributed to improve economic conditions, social change was not as apparent, and there are concerns of sustainability and further development of self reliance of the institutions. The SHG-Bank Linkage Programme has the following objectives: To develop mutual faith and confidence between the rural poor and bankers To combine sensitivity, flexibility and responses of the informal credit system with the strength of administration capabilities, technical strength and the financial resources of the formal financial institutions. To expand credit flow/ financial services to the rural poor with less transaction costs. To alleviate poverty and empower the women. Models of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme The strategy behind these models is to form small, cohesive and participative groups of the poor and encourage them to pool their savings regularly and use the pooled savings in order to make small interest bearing loans available to the members. Bank credit also becomes available to the group to augment its resources for the purpose of lending to its members. The SHG-bank linkage program has proved to be the major supplementary credit delivery system with a wide acceptance by banks, NGOs and various government departments. There are three models of SHG-bank linkages that have evolved over time, especially in India. MODEL I. SHGs formed and financed by banks In this model, banks themselves take up the work of forming and nurturing the groups, opening their bank accounts and providing them with bank loans after satisfying themselves as to their maturity to absorb credit. Upto March 2006, about 20% of the total number of SHGs financed was from this category. This shows an increase of 61.63 percent in bank loan to SHGs over the position as on March 2005 reflecting an increased role of banks in promoting and nurturing SHGs. Here, the banks act as the SHGPI. MODEL II. SHGs formed by NGOs and formal organisations but directly financed by the banks In this model, groups are formed by NGOs (in most cases) or by the government agencies. The groups are nurtured and trained by the agencies. The bank then provides credit directly to the SHGs after observing their operations and maturity to absorb credit. While the bank provides loans to the groups directly, the facilitating agencies continue their interactions with the SHGs. Most linkage experiences begin with this model, where NGOs play a major role. This model has also been popular with and more acceptable to banks, since some of the difficult functions of social dynamics are externalized. This model continuous to have a major share. About 70 percent of the total number of SHGs is financed under this model. MODEL III. SHGs financed by banks using NGOs and other agencies as financial intermediaries   For various reasons, banks in some areas are not in a position even to finance SHGs promoted and nurtured by other agencies. In such cases, the NGOs act as both facilitators and microfinance intermediaries. First, they promote the groups, nurture and train them and then they approach banks for bulk loans for further lending to SHGs. In other words, banks take the sole responsibility for promoting, developing and financing SHGs. In fact, this programme requires considerable effort by the bank staff towards the formation of SHG. This model is not so encouraging. Models of SHG Linkages Bank Loans Model Number of Linkages % of Total Amount (Rs. In million) % of Total 1. 13561 14 339.79 18 2. 65636 70 1339.95 69 3. 15448 16 250.10 13 A major share of population in India continuous to remain outside the formal banking system inspite of considerable expansion in the branch network. And various alternative models are being experimented in order to meet the objective of financial inclusion. The SHG-Bank Linkage model is considered a most successful, promising and widely accepted model in India. This model was introduced in 1991-92 with a pilot project of linking 500 SHGs with banks and this figure has gone up to more than 34 lakh by the end of March 2008.Cummulatively, these SHGs have assessed credit of Rs. 22,268 crore from banks during the period. About 4.1 crore poor have gained access to the formal system through the programme. The number of SHGs linked to banks has increased from 32995 during 1998-99 to 3477965 during 2007-08 during the period of last about ten years. It means there is an impressive 68 percent compound annual growth rate. But the compound annual growth rate is almost double each year for the cum ulative bank loan to SHGs which is 94 percent. The faster growth in bank loans to SHGs has led to almost a four-fold increase in the average loans per SHG from Rs. 16,816 in 1999-2000 to Rs. 63,926 in 2007-08. These figures reflect the outstanding success of the programme in the Chart 1 given below. Chart I: Growth of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme 4 Progress of the SHG-Bank linkage Programme NABARD introduced an effective SHG-Bank Linkage Programme in order to provide credit to very small borrowers. The introduction of the SHG-Bank linkage Programme to discard the general perception of bankers that customers with no formal education or source of income or of no use to the bank and thus are not welcome. Since the year 2000, the statistical data show the rate of growth in SHGs linked under the programme is gradually falling in the year 1999-2000 the growth rate was more than 245% whereas it fell below 38.3% in 2005-06. However, the higher growth in the late nineties may be due to initial penetration of SHGs under the programme. With the formation of new SHGs, the scope is widened which will improve the condition of the poor households and it should be worked upon. Table 1 shown below the cumulative progress of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme. Table I: Cumulative Progress of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme (INR in crores) Year SHGs Linked Bank Loan Refinance Assistance 1992-93 255 0.29 0.27 1995-96 4757 6.06 5.66 1998-99 32955 57.07 52.09 2002-03 461478 2048.67 796.50 2005-06 2238565 11397.46 4159.70 2006-07 2924973 17967.46 5452.56 2007-08 3477965 26816.72 7068.06 2008-09 4559443 39070.23 9688.09 Note: From 2006-07 onwards, data on number of SHGs financed by banks and bank loans are inclusive of Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna(SGSY) SHGs and existing groups receiving repeat loans. Source: NABARD Annual Report 2008-09 The above table shows the cumulative progress in this area with the amount of refinance assistance during the respective periods. Disparity in the SHG-Bank linkage Programme SHG-Bank Linkage Programme was started with the objective of extending the outreach of banking the poor, who mainly comprise the marginal farmers, landless labourers, artisans and craftsmen and others engaged in the small businesses such as vending and hawking. Now the important point is that whether the programme has really made inroads into the regions where concentration of poverty is comparatively higher. And this can be found if we compare the poverty ratio at all India level with the ratio of various regions. Earlier, during 2004-05, the all-India poverty ratio stood at about 27.6 per cent while the Northern (15.7 per cent), North- Eastern (19.2 per cent), Southern (19.8 per cent) and Western region (25.8 per cent) had lower than the all-India poverty ratio, Central (35 per cent), and Eastern Region (36.2 per cent) had higher poverty ratios than at the all-India level. Now this variation is comparatively changed with the expansion of number of SHGs. Similarly, there has been skewed development of SHG-Bank linkage programme on geographical basis in India. There is wide regional disparity both in terms of the spread of SHGs linked to banks and cumulative bank loans disbursed under the programme. In March 2008, while the Southern Region accounted for 48.2 per cent of the total SHGs, the share of North- Eastern Region was just 3.4 per cent as depicted in table 2. In terms of share in the total bank loans to SHGs, the region-wise differential gets further magnified. So far, the SHG movement in the country is mostly south-centric and it is yet to take off in the real sense in other regions of India. Table II: Region-wise Progress of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme (As on March 31, 2008) Regions Share (%) in Programme No. of SHGs Loans to SHGs (Rs. crore) Average Loans per SHG (Rs.) No. of SHGs Loans to SHGs SHGs per Lakh Population Northern 2,30,740 851 36,899 6.6 3.8 156 North Eastern 1,19,520 327 27,364 3.4 1.5 283 Eastern 6,72,626 2,372 35,268 19.3 10.7 274 Central 4,05,707 1,501 36,990 11.7 6.7 142 Western 3,74,561 1,320 35,254 10.8 5.9 229 Southern 16,74,811 15,896 94,915 48.2 71.4 703 All India 34,77,965 22,268 64,027 100.0 100.0 310 Source: NABARD While the Southern Region accounted for 71.4 per cent of the total loans to SHGs, the share of North-Eastern Region was just about 1.5 per cent. For all regions excluding Southern Region, even though the share of total SHGs linked to banks was close to 51.8 per cent, their share in total loans to SHGs was only 28.6 per cent implying that adequate credit is not being routed through SHGs in these regions. As the regions vary in geographical area and population, the number of SHGs is normalized by the population of the region and SHG per lakh population has been taken as a better indicator of SHG spread in the respective regions. The number of SHGs per lakh population for the Southern Region is 703, which is more than double the average at all-India (310) and almost five times of the Central Region (142). All these data given in the table shows an impressive growth in southern region followed by eastern, central and others. The SHG Bank Linkage Model has made considerable progress since its inception in the early 1990s and agency wise outstanding number of credit linked SHGs and amount of loans with Banks is presented in Table3 given below. Table III: Bank Loans Outstanding under SHG-Bank Linkage Programme Agency 2008 09 2009-10 No. of SHGs (in000) Amount (Rs. In Crores) No. of SHGs (in000) Amount (Rs. In Crores) Commercial Banks 2831 16149 3237 20165 Regional Rural Banks 978 5224 1104 6144 Cooperative Banks 415 1306 510 1729 Total 4224 22679 4851 28038 Source: Status of Microfinance in India 2009-10 Banks have financed 15.87 lakh SHGs, including repeat loan to the existing SHGs, with bank loans of Rs. 14,453 crores during 2009-10. Out of the total loans disbursed during 2009-10, SHGs financed under SGSY accounted for 2.67 lakh (16.9%) with bank loan of Rs. 2198.00 crore (15.2%). As on March 2010, the average loan amounts outstanding per SHG and per member were Rs. 57795 and Rs. 4128 respectively. The estimated number of households covered under the Self Help Group (SHG)-Bank Linkage Programme was 9.7 crores up to 31 March 2010. Current Position of SHG-Bank Linkage Programme Though there are different models for purveying micro finance, the Self-Help Group Bank Linkage Programme has emerged as the major programme in the country. It is being implemented by commercial banks, regional rural banks (RRBs), and cooperative banks. In 2009-10, 1.59 million new SHGs were credit-linked with banks, and bank loan of 14,453 crore (including repeat loan) was disbursed to these SHGs. Further, about 6.95 million SHGs maintained savings accounts with banks at the end of March 2010. On an average, the amount of savings per SHG was 8,915 as compared to the amount of credit outstanding of 57,795 in 2009-10. While there was a continued increase in the amount of credit outstanding per SHG, there was a fluctuating trend in the amount of saving per SHG in the recent years. According to the Status of Micro Finance in India 2009-2010 released by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) there are 69,53,000 SHGs in the country savings linked with banks and 48,51,000 SHGs having loan outstanding as on 31 March 2010.   The estimated number of households covered under this model is about 970 lakhs.   The total savings amount of all the SHGs with banks as on 31 March 2010 amounts to Rs.6198.71 crore and the total amount of loans outstanding against SHGs as on 31 March 2010 is Rs.28038.28 crore. Table IV: New SHGs Financed by Banks during the Year   Year New SHGs Financed by Banks during the Year No. (lakh) Amount (Rs. crore) Growth (%) 2007-08 12.28 8,849.26 2008-09 16.09 12,256.51 38.50 2009-10 15.87 14,453.30 17.90 2010-11 11.96 14,547.73 0.65 Source: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) Under the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme as on 31 March 2011, 74.62 lakh SHGs held savings bank accounts with total savings of Rs. 7,016 crores as against 69.53 lakh SHGs with savings of Rs.6, 199 crores as on 31 March 2010. By December 2011, another 2.98 lakh SHGs have come under the ambit of the programme, taking the cumulative number of saving-linked groups to 77.60 lakh SHGs. As on 31 March 2011, 47.87 lakh SHGs had outstanding bank loans of Rs. 31,221 crores, as against 48.5 lakh SHGs with bank loans of Rs. 28,038 crore as on 31 March 2010. This represents a decline of 1.3 percent in the number of SHGs and a growth of 11.4 percent in bank loans outstanding to SHGs as per table 4 given above. During 2011-12, (upto December 2011), 4.51 lakh SHGs have been financed with an amount of Rs. 6,791.46 crore. Thus, the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme is considered as the largest financial inclusion programme in the world.   Conclusion SHG-Bank Linkage Programme is developed in India to provide finance to the vast rural poor. In this programme, the informal SHGs are credit linked with the formal financial institutions. The SHG-Bank Linkage Programme has emerged as a dominant, relevant and effective prorgramme in terms of borrowers and loans outstanding in India. It is flexible, independence creating, and imparts freedom of savings and borrowing according to the heterogeneous needs and requirements of the group members. Through this program, the Reserve Bank of India and NABARD has tried to promote relationship banking, i.e., Improving the existing relationship between the poor and the bankers with the social intermediation of the NGOs. The SHG-bank linkage program in India is rapidly expanding its outreach under the pioneering initiative of NABARD, the monitoring and supervision of RBI, and the promotional policies of the government of India. At the grass root level the program is being implemented by the commercial banks, cooperatives, and regional rural banks, with government agencies. Self-help groups (SHGs) play today major role in poverty alleviation in rural India. SHGs have changed the life of a particular individual or group for the better. This is considered not only a tool for poverty alleviation but also has proven to be relevant in offering women the possibility to break gradually away from the exploitation and isolation in India. The SHG-Bank Linkage Programme has provided a more favor able environment for enhancing Indias potential for greater equitable growth with empowerment while considering the positive signs in their performance.