Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Portrayal of Women's Health Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Portrayal of Women's Health - Research Paper Example The portrayal of women health issues by the media plays a role in shaping opinion and influencing medical practice around such issues. Women health issues include pregnancy, abortion, female sexual organs and even hormonal issues. Scientific publications that report on women health issues, advertisements that deal around women health issues, films, television programs among other media forms have portrayed women health issues in different ways depending on what they seek to achieve. The media coverage of women health issues has been subjective and biased, objectifying women and reporting their issues in relation to their reproductive role in the society. Â  This essay seeks to discuss the media portrayal of women health issues focusing on the historical and modern views. With the understanding of the huge role that the media plays in shaping opinions in the society and subsequently influencing the medical practice, the essay seeks to discuss the issues around how women health issues are portrayed by the media. This includes issues around women’s pregnancy, female sexual organs, abortion and related issues. The issues about the women’s health are prevalent in the media ranging from television, print media, commercials, films among other media forms. Therefore, how the health issues of women are presented is important as they influence decision making about women’s health. In interrogating the fundamental issues around the portrayal of women health issues by the media, the essay seeks to put into perspective the biases, subjectivity, and sexualization of women health issues by the media that immensely affect decis ion making on the health of a woman (Lee, 1992). The findings shall be provided as well as a brief summary conclusion. Â  

Monday, October 28, 2019

Art on Japanese Art History Essay Example for Free

Art on Japanese Art History Essay How can the artistic medium one chooses to use to express oneself determine whether or not it is truly art? While digital artists’ artistic ability is often questioned and the credit is given to the computer being used, the art itself springs from the mind of the digital artist. I can say this with personal fervor: Digital art is truly in essence a form of art that merely takes advantage of the innovations of modern technology. Digital Art isn’t computer-generated. While it might involve using tools offered by specialized computer programs a computer doesn’t do the thinking for you, and the creative ideas put forth are of the artist’s mind. Digital artist’s only use computer tools to convey their designs, all of the creative credibility should be given to the artist himself. Should the canvas the Mona Lisa was painted on be considered the creator of the masterpiece or rather Leonardo Da Vinci? Painters that stick to canvas are limiting themselves to the paint they use and the cotton woven fibers of their canvas. Why purposely choose to ignore the modern day tools that are given to you and condescendingly look down upon those who choose to utilize them? Over the years, I have spent a lot of my own time experimenting in the depths of digital art. Many times, I have used the computer as a medium for self expression; from creating to pictures on Microsoft paint as a child to experimenting with specialized software such as Adobe Photoshop. I have a deep and passionate love for creating and expressing myself through artwork on the computer. I one day aspire to have a profession in the field of digital art, such as a Graphic Designer. Because of this, I am very offended by the comments I hear from â€Å"traditional artists† that condescend digital art for its use of the computer as the artistic medium. When I hear comments that degrade digital artwork to computer-generated images, as though the computer itself designed the art I feel enraged and cheated. The other day a friend of mine ignorantly explained to me that she could, given the proper software, create her own masterpiece without any prior experience in digital art, as though anyone if given the proper software could instantaneously create masterpieces, when really there is so much more to digital art than computer software or the computer itself. It’s about one’s individual artistic talents. To me that would be the equivalent of saying that if I were given a canvas and a paintbrush I could instantaneously create a masterpiece, which I know is false and ignorant. Art is â€Å"the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others† (Britannica). Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process. There are many different employment fields in digital art. A couple of examples are graphic design and web design. Graphic design is the process and art of combining text and graphics and communicating an effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication. Famous Graphic Designer, Milton Glaser, says â€Å"to design is to communicate clearly by whatever means you can control or master. † A graphic designer would meet with his/her clients and discuss the type of visual communication the client is interested in. The client may provide a general idea for the design, but the creative options are left for the designer to decide how to best portray the message of the client. The designer would then either sketch out a design to scan on to the computer for further alterations or go directly to the computer software in order to design the desired product. The designer would then verify with the client for satisfaction of the product. Web Design is the art and process of creating a single Web page or entire Web sites and may involve both the aesthetics and the mechanics of a Web site’s operation although primarily it focuses on the look and feel of the Web site the design elements. â€Å"To be effective, the interfaces for online information systems must be as rich and flexible as the physical environments they replace. They must not only supply a direct path to reach the users goals, but must be able to accommodate different approaches to the task. This means that the interface design must not only organize the content for easy access, but must incorporate the right combination of technologies and interaction techniques to allow the user to work in their own style† (Quesenbery). A Web Designer would be sought out by a client in need of assistance in designing a website or website layout, usually for advertising and communicative purposes of the client. Like in Graphic design, the client may provide the designer with a general idea or guideline for the product, however, web designers must understand the dynamics of coding and html. Traditional art is understood to include things such as paintings, sculptures, and hand-drawings; basically any art which involves physical activity, usually of the hands. Famous Traditional Artists include: Leonardo DaVinci, Vincent Van Gough, and Andy Warhol. These artists use drawings and paintings as their forms of self expression which led to their innovative masterpieces: the Mona Lisa, Starry Night, and Pop Art, respectively. Traditional artists often look down upon the usage of the computer as the creative medium utilized when expressing oneself in art. Some believe that using a computer negates the creative ability of the artist and is the less credible form of art. Using computers in order to create art is sometimes seen as the easier method involving little artistic ability. â€Å"For artists diving into a new technology, it is a triple short-cut to mastery: you get a free ride on the novelty of the medium; there are no previous masters to surpass; and after a few weeks, you are the master† (Brand). There is a certain type of beauty in a hand-painted piece of art. The same is true for a masterfully drawn illustration. For this there is no substitute. Traditional art is the oldest form of art and could be considered the foundation of art. Many people consider this form of art to require the highest level of skill and creative ability, and that there is no other type of art form that can surpass it. There are a large number of people that believe this form of art is most vital, and that digital art simply shouldn’t be considered art due to the use of technology rather than their hands. Opponents of digital art argue that there is no skill in â€Å"pointing and clicking† on a computer screen. â€Å"I would rather choose the painting of a monkey over anything generated electronically, because I am more fascinated by the direct evidence of a mind at work than I am by the output of machines† (Glenn). Because of this belief, there is a good bit of animosity between the two different sects. Traditional artists feel as if they are protecting art in its truest form, whereas digital artists feel as if they are exposing the world to a newer and more advanced form of art infinitely full of possibilities. While traditional art is the older and more revered art form, that doesn’t mean that digital art is any less of an art. Both art forms require talent, precision, technique, and creativity from the artist. Digital artists are just as legitimate of artists as traditional artists. It is simply ignorant and petty to distinguish digital art as separate from true art in essence. Yes, computers are used as the medium for expression, however, like previously stated, that doesn’t mean that the computer creates the ideas and designs. The designs and creativity come from the artist and the computer is simply another way to release the idea from the artist’s mind, similar to a piece of paper or canvas. Digital art should be just as revered as traditional art because the amount of creativity and artistic ability is equal in both forms.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Implications of Migration for Pro-poor Agricultural Growth :: essays research papers

differences etc. all of which influence migration patterns and remittance utilisation. Methods musttherefore be broadened to include more qualitative techniques and case studies. 2. Integrate migration and commuting into PRSPs, CASs, National Plans At present most key policy documents related to rural development, agriculture and povertyreduction pay little or no attention to migration. These should be reviewed where possible to integrate migration and commuting concerns. There needs to be a greater recognition of thecontribution of current and future mobility to development and poverty reduction. 3. Identify the conditions which stimulate the productive use of remittances Examples of productive investment of remittances should be studied to understand where and how this has occurred by giving special attention to: • Labour availability and household labour allocation decisions, how gender roles and cultural factors influences these decisions and the impacts of labour depletion on the household and local economy• The skills base of migrants and how/if this has changed through migration and whatcontribution that has made to developing/enhancing agriculture or enterprise in the source village• Existing constraints faced by the poor in key agricultural markets such as credit and labour and how remittances are used in situations of persistent debt crea ted byinterlocked markets – do remittances help the poor in escaping from thesearrangements?• Availability of key natural resources – water and land are probably the mostimportant. Are remittances invested in buying more land and is this used for production soon, later or never? Does the availability of water affect this pattern?The information from such studies can be used to identify appropriate complementary interventions The obvious ones are education and health – i.e. more educated and healthier farmers are morelikely to spend on better farm inputs and technologies etc. 4. Identify locations/situations where it would make more sense to facilitate the movement of people This would need to be decided on a case by case basis, say at the district level in order toaccommodate location specific historical, agro-ecological factors as well rates of urbanisation and agricultural development. The Chinese example is informative because mobility is being encouraged to reduce rural poverty and sustain the rural economy.5. Design transport services to suit poor migrants and commuters A number of research projects on transport conducted under by ITDG and through the DFID Knowledge and Research (KaR) projects have noted transport constraints, and their impact on rurallivelihoods and service provision are of a high priority for the rural poor.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Effect of Alcoholism on the Family

Alcoholism has been a problem America has faced for thousands of years. There are alcoholics in every generation and they can be of any age, social or ethnic group, and socio-economic status. Numerous studies unexpectedly show that alcoholism typically affects highly educated and highly motivated individuals (Silverstein, 1990 cited in Parsons, 2003).Presently, in a national survey conducted in 2001 by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse), nearly half of Americans (48.  3 percent or roughly 109 million) at least 12 years of age reported that they were current alcohol drinkers, while 5. 7 percent or 12. 9 million reported that they engage in heavy drinking.Most of the heavy drinkers were young adults aged 18 to 25 years old (13. 6 percent of the population within this age range), and heavy alcohol use rates decreased with increasing age as only 5. 4 percent of the middle-aged population admitted that they engage in heavy dr inking. These heavy drinkers have caused many problems not only for themselves but for the family as well.Hence, alcoholism has been recognized as a family disease. An alcoholic in the family can have lasting detrimental effects to the family. In another survey conducted by the U. S Department of Health and Human Services together with Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), â€Å"76 million American adults have been exposed to alcoholism in the family. † Hence, it’s not surprising that family problems have been attributed mostly to alcoholism than to any other single cause (Parsons, 2003). McAneny (1997 cited in Walters, 2002) adds that in every three families, one family has alcohol-related problems.The significant effect of the presence of alcoholic in the family has caught the attention of many scholars and institutions. They contributed greatly in identifying the specific effects of alcoholism on the individual and on the family. This pap er aims to describe the biological and behavioral effects of alcoholism on the family of alcoholics. Specifically, it aims to discuss the following: (1) The parental behavior of alcoholics (2) Spousal and child violence of alcoholics (3) The biological effects on the child of alcoholics (COAs)(4) The psychological effects of alcoholism on the family members Considering the findings of numerous studies, the author states that alcoholism has biological effects on children of alcoholics, contributes to spousal and child violence, and has a psychological effect on the family members. Behavioral Problems of Alcoholics Parental Behavior of Alcoholics Alcoholic parents cannot provide their children the necessary proper bonding characterized by consistent love and nurturing. The alcoholic parent is mostly absent. When he or she is present, he or she exhibits very inconsistent behavior.For instance, he or she may be harsh and abusive at one time, then remorseful and kind later (McGaha, 1995) . This observation is further supported by a study conducted by Lang (1999) involving alcoholic parents and their deviant children. Results of his experiment establish the causal effect of alcohol on parenting behavior. Intoxicated parents were less likely to keep their attention focused on their child and respond appropriately. They were also inclined to fail to attend or misperceive their children’s problem behaviors, placing the parents in a poor position to correct the problem behavior.Decrease in consistency of parenting behavior was also found to be a consequence of drinking. Due to changes in parental perception induced by alcohol intoxication, Lang also concluded that these changes could cause the disciplinary patterns of the parents to vary as a result of alcohol intoxication. Being intoxicated also caused the interaction style of parents to be disorganized and inconsistent. They engaged in irrelevant talk and failed to maintain task-oriented work behaviors as they w ere less congenial, i. e., laughed and played less, and inconsistent, i. e. , worked less, talked more. Based on these results, Lang concluded that alcohol intoxication lessens parental effectiveness. Alcoholic Violence on Spouses Kantor and Straus (1990) conducted a review of 15 empirical studies and discovered a range from 6 to 85% alcohol involvement in spouse abuse. One of the studies they reviewed is Labell’s (1979) study the findings of which showed that nearly three-fourths or 72 percent of 512 physically abused women reported that their husbands have alcohol problems.In an analysis of the survey data that they gathered, results revealed that a direct linear relationship exists between the wife battering rates and typical drinking patterns. The rate of drinking of binge and heavy drinkers was nearly one half or 48 percent at the time of physical abuse incident (cited in Hutchison, 1999). Alcoholism and Child Abuse Research estimates reveal that more than 1 million chil dren in the US are involved in some form of abuse or neglect every year (Widom, 1993 cited in Widom, 2001).Child abuse has been associated with alcohol use and abuse which has been considered either as a consequence or a causative factor. For instance, alcohol abuse of parents may contribute to an abusive treatment towards their child (Widom, 2001). Some studies support this conclusion, one of which is the study of Ammerman and his associates (1999) which revealed a relationship between parents with history of alcohol and other drug abuse (AOD) and a higher potential to abusive treatment of children in comparison to parents without history of AOD (cited in Widom, 2001).Another study that supports the link of alcoholism and child abuse state that mothers who have histories of alcohol problems are â€Å"more likely to use harsh punishment on their children compared with women without such histories† (Miller et al. , 1997 cited in Widom, 2001). Biological Effects on the Child of Alcoholics Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders When mothers consume alcohol during their pregnancy, it causes the child in their womb to have birth defects, clinically known as a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).The most clinically recognized form of FASD is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is usually characterized by the following: (1) a pattern of minor facial irregularity; (2) prenatal and postnatal growth defects; and (3) abnormalities in the functional or structural central nervous system (CNS). These birth defects cause neurocognitive impairment resulting in behavioral disturbances and learning difficulties. Another clinically recognizable form of FASD is alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder which is similar to FAS but the defects in the facial feature are absent (Wattendorf, 2005).A study conducted by Sampson et al. (1997) and Stratton et al. (1996) reported that 1 percent of the US population may be affected by FASD (cited in Wattendorf, 2005). Mothers who cons ume high levels of alcohol during pregnancy are likely to give birth to children who have FASD. In fact, animal studies show that during pregnancy, a single episode of alcohol consumption (two alcoholic beverages where one drink is equal to 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1. 5 ounces of â€Å"hard† liquor), may bring about the loss of fetal brain cells (Olney, 2004 cited in Wattendorf, 2005).However, even when the deleterious effects of alcohol on the baby has become a widespread knowledge, a study conducted by the National Task Force on Fetal alcohol Syndrome and Fetal alcohol Effect participated by 18 to 24 years old women showed that 10 percent of the mothers consumed alcohol while pregnant, of which 2 percent participated in binge drinking, i. e. , consuming five or more drinks on one occasion (Wattendorf, 2005). As alcohol consumption directly results in neuronal damage and fetal brain cell due to the toxin from alcohol, FASD is considered nonhereditary.No prenat al period has been exempted from the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in any period of pregnancy may result in CNS damage, even before doing a pregnancy test. Thus, women should not drink any beverage with alcohol content from the time of conception to birth (Wattendorf, 2005) Genetic Factors of Alcoholism Early family studies revealed that people with a family history of alcohol misuse have three to four times higher chance of personally misusing alcohol than those who have no family history of alcohol misuse (Cotton, 1979, cited in Walters, 2002).Further studies on parent-to-offspring transmission of alcoholism were conducted by observing male children of alcoholics who were adopted-away or placed in adoptive homes since birth (Goodwim et al. 1973; Schuckit et al. 1972a, b; all cited in Wilson, 1991). Findings of the study conducted by Goodwin and associates (1973) showed that 33 percent of adopted-away sons of alcoholic fathers became alcoholics as well, as opposed to 7 percent incidence of alcoholism on adopted-away sons of nonalcoholic fathers, representing a 26 percent increase in incidence of alcoholism (Winston, 1991).While these results may be significant in determining the probability of future alcoholism for the sons of alcoholics, discerning exactly who among them will turn out to be alcoholic is difficult to answer. After all, more than half of the sons of alcoholics studied (two-thirds) did not become alcoholics (Goodwin et al. , 1973 cited in Winston, 1991).Thus, providing intervention or prevention strategies for the sons of alcoholics would be a waste of effort two-thirds of the time, and would overlook a more important matter: rehabilitating alcoholic sons of nonalcoholics (Winston, 1991). Psychological Effects of Alcoholism on the Family Psychological Effects on Children of Alcoholics (COAs) It has been widely considered that parents with alcohol problems place their children at a high risk of having several developmental and beh avioral problems, including the development of substance abuse problems of their own (Conners, 2004).Numerous studies show that COAs are at an elevated risk of developing externalizing and behavior problems including conduct disorder, oppositional disorder, delinquency, and attention deficit disorders (Earls, Reich, Jung, & Cloninger, 1988; Kuperman, Schlosser, Lidral, & Reich, 1999; Merikangas & Avenevoli, 2000; Reich, Earls, Frankel, & Shayka, 1993, Sher, 1991; all cited in Ohennessian, 2004). Other studies focused on internalizing problems that develop in COAs such as depression and anxiety (Bennett, Wolin, & Reiss, 1988; Chassin, Pitts, DeLucia, & Todd, 1999; Reich et al., 1993; all cited in Ohannessian, 2004). There is also a higher possibility that COAs would experience substance abuse problems as to non-COAs (Chassin et al. , 1999; Goodwin, 1988; Russell, Cooper, & Frone, 1990; all cited in Ohannessian, 2004). In addition, these children also have negative psychological sympt oms such as low self-esteem, loneliness, guilt, feelings of helplessness, fears of abandonment, and chronic depression (Berger, 1993 cited in Parsons, 2003). They also often experience high levels of tension and stress resulting in frequent nightmares, bed wetting, and crying.They may also feel that they are to blame for the problems of the alcoholic, thinking that they are the cause of the problem. Adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) may exhibit depressive symptoms such as obsessive perfectionism, hoarding, or being excessively self-conscious (Parsons, 2003). The school performance of COAs may also be affected as stressful home environment prevents them from studying. In school, they may also develop the inability to express themselves and the difficulty in relating with their teachers and classmates.A survey conducted by the US government show that there are 30 percent of women who were not able to finish high school are daughters of alcoholics while only 20 percent of sons of al coholics went to college. ACOAs also experience problems of depression, aggression, or impulsive behavior. As parents, they often tend to become failures and make poor career choices due to elevated feelings of worthlessness and failure (Berger, 1993 cited in Parsons, 2003). Although a portion of COAs develop psychological problems later in life, many of them do not manifest high levels of emotional and behavioral problems and become alcoholics themselves.The cause of variability may be attributed to individual differences and factors other than parental alcoholism that independently contribute to child outcomes (Loukas et al. , 2001). Psychological Effects on Spouses of Alcoholics Spouses of Alcoholics may develop negative emotions such as hatred, self-pity, and avoidance of social contacts. They may also suffer from exhaustion and from physical or mental illness as the spouse fulfills the responsibilities of two parents (Berger, 1993 cited in Parsons, 2003).The nonalcoholic spouse s’ focus on the alcoholic spouse may cause them to neglect their children (McGaha, 1995; Berger, 1993 cited in Parsons, 2003). The marital conflict caused by alcoholism often leads to divorce (Parsons, 2003; McGaha, 1995). Family Problems of in an Alcoholic Family System The home environment of an alcoholic family system is characterized by bewildering emotional conflicts such as inconsistent and antagonistic behavior (Morehouse, 1994 cited in McGaha, 1995). As alcoholism is considered as one of the major instigators of divorce, alcoholic families are often broken.However, studies also show that spouse and children of alcoholics contribute to the drinker’s irresponsible habit and make it worse by tolerating it to keep the family together (Parsons, 2003). Denial of the problem instigates multiple emotional problems in the family members. The family members also often become codependent i. e. , unconsciously addicted to the abnormal behavior of another (Wekesser, 1994 ci ted in Parsons, 2003). The codependent family members of alcoholics try to do everything they can to hide the problem, causing the spouse and children to â€Å"avoid making friends and bringing other people home† (Parsons, 2003).The codependent family members often let go of their own needs or desires to attempt to control or cure the drinker (Parsons, 2003). Summary and Conclusion The studies cited in this paper suggest that alcoholism contributes to numerous problems in the family. Alcoholic parents tend to become ineffective as parents due to parental inconsistencies such as inconsistency in discipline caused by misperception of a child’s behavior problem. Alcoholics were also found to inflict physical abuse on family members their spouse and children especially when they have consumed high levels of alcohol.Alcoholism has also biological effects on the child of alcoholics (COAs). Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) occurs when mothers consume alcohol during pregnancy. FAS is characterized by physical deformities and cognitive impairment, resulting in learning disabilities. The role of genes in alcoholism was also considered, as findings of a study conducted on adopted-away sons of alcoholics reveal that 30 percent of the participants turned out to be alcoholics like their parents. Finally, alcoholism has a psychological impact on the family.Family members of alcoholics experience a bewildering mixture of emotional conflict at home and become codependent on the alcoholic’s behavior. Children of Alcoholics (COAs) and spouses of alcoholics have a higher risk of having behavior, development, and social problems. References Conners, N. A. (2004). Children of mothers with serious substance abuse problems: an accumulation of risks. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(1), 85-100. Hutchison, I. W. (1999). Alcohol, fear, and woman abuse. Sex Roles, 40, 893-920. Lang, A. R. (1999).Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in inter actions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(3), 177-189. Loukas, A. et al. (2001). Parental alcoholism and co-occurring antisocial behavior: prospective relationships to externalizing behavior problems in their young sons. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(2), 91-106. McGaha, J. E. (1995). Family violence, abuse, and related family issues of incarcerated delinquents with alcoholic parents compared to those with nonalcoholic parents.Adolescence, 30(118), 473-482. Ohannessian, C. M. (2004). The relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychopathology: a systematic examination of parental comorbid psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(5), 519-533 Parsons, T. (December 14, 2003). Alcoholism and its effect on the family. AllPsych Journal. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from http://allpsych. com/journal/alcoholism. html Samhsa. gov (2002). Statistics. Alcohol and Drug Information. Re trieved November 7, 2007 from http://ncadistore. aspx? topic=3 Walters, G. D. (2002). The heritability of alcohol abuse and dependence: a meta-analysis of behavior genetic research. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28(3), 557- 584. Widom, C. S. (2001). Alcohol abuse as a risk factor for and consequence of child abuse. Alcohol Research and Health. 25(1), 52-57. Wilson, J. R. (1991). Genetics of alcoholism. Alcohol Health and Research World, Winter, 1991. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0847/is_n1_v15/ai_12148263/print

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Ambition in Macbeth

Ambition is often the driving force in one’s life. It can have an extremely dominant impact on not only yourself, but also many people in your surroundings. You have the ability to control if the outcomes either have a lasting negative or positive effect. When a goal requires determination and hard work to complete, personal morals often take a back seat to the aspiration of accomplishing the goal. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, it is clear that like many other great leaders, Macbeth exemplifies the necessary leadership virtue of ambition.Macbeth’s ambition does not just drive him to do great things. It in fact controls him. The playwright explores the idea of how an individual’s ambition can cause them to deceive others, make irrational decisions, and cause internal turmoil. Ambition, along with the influence of his wife, Lady Macbeth, causes Macbeth to deceive his peers in order to attain position as king. The first time the reader sees Macbeth’s ambit ion causing him to be deceitful, is when him and his wife invite the current King of Scotland into their home for a dinner, with the soul intent of killing him.After receiving news of Macbeth’s new honor, she holds greater ambitions for Macbeth and pushes him to the edge to achieve the personal goals that she has set for him. To achieve the main goal of becoming king, Macbeth must deceive Duncan in way that will allow him to take over the throne. He must do this by taking action when â€Å"The bell invites [him]. Hear it not, Duncan; for it is a knell. That summons thee to heaven or to hell. † (Act II, scene i) This visibly demonstrates how Macbeth deceived his friend into trusting him, when clearly his wife and he had different intentions all along.This proves how an individual’s ambition has the capability to consume ones personal morals and values for the worse. The impacting role of ambition in Macbeth’s life also causes him to make quick, remorseful, irrational decisions. One of these decisions that he made was hiring murderers to execute Banquo. Macbeth believes in the witches prophesy that Banquo will be the father of a king, making Fleance, Banquo’s son, a definite threat to Macbeth’s current position as king. He wants to carry on his legacy as ruler of Scotland, so it appears to him that he has no other options but to eliminate his opposition.Caught up in the moment and his recently developed ambition drove him to do whatever it takes to stay in power. Macbeth realizes that â€Å"It will have blood; they say, blood will have blood† (Act III, scene iv), but what he is unaware of is his guilty conscience that is slowly beginning to creep over himself. Due to his thrill to kill and illogical decision making, Macbeth begins to have second thoughts about his actions. These decisions cause a great disturbance and uncertainty for Macbeth, soon c    Macbeth’s ambitious drive to become king causes him t o have internal conflicts.These issues have been forced upon him by his wife, and have fully consumed his mind and led him to hallucinate. Internal turmoil-ghost, dagger. A strong desire to do or to achieve something, typically requiring determination and hard work. Desire and determination to achieve success Desire, aspiration, ambition In Macbeth, ambition is presented as a dangerous quality. It causes the downfall of both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and triggers a series of deaths in Macbeth. Ambition is therefore the driving force of the play.Macbeth’s ambition is driven by a number of factors including: Prophesy: The Macbeth witches prophesize that Macbeth will become King. Macbeth believes them and the various prophesies are realized throughout the play. However, it is unclear whether these prophesies are preordained or self fulfilling. Lady Macbeth: his wife is the driving force that encourages Macbeth to overcome his strong sense of guilt and take action on the prophesie s. Macbeth’s ambition soon spirals out of control and forces him to murder again and again to cover up his previous wrongdoings.Macbeth’s first victims are the Chamberlains who are blamed and killed by Macbeth for the murder of King Duncan. Banquo’s murder soon follows once Macbeth fears that the truth could be exposed. Ambition is often the driving force in one’s life. It is supposed to be the motivating factor that drives one towards success. Society also deems ambition a necessary quality of their leader. It can be said that Macbeth exhibits this quality of ambition. He is the strong, valiant warrior who has won in battle and brought victory to Scotland.However, Macbeth’s quest to acquire more power-his ambition-ultimately leads to his tragic demise. How can one allow himself to be destroyed by such a thing? Before Duncan’s murder, Macbeth questions and second guesses his ambitious tendencies and actions. Despite his anxiety, he succumbs to these tendencies and finds himself in an increasingly precarious situation, with his back against the wall and growing ever closer to his almost inevitable end. It is obvious that Macbeth has ambition, as most people who are in power do.In fact, ambition is often a necessary quality of people in such high standing as Macbeth is. However, Macbeth’s ambition does not just drive him to do great things. It in fact controls him Through all these things, one can clearly see that Macbeth is headed on a path for disaster; a path started, and forcefully driven, by his ambition. His ambition drove him to kill Duncan so he could acquire the throne. His ambition then drove him to order the murders of Banquo and Fleance. Through that process alone, one could say that Macbeth’s ambition did lead to his downfall.However, even more disastrous than the external consequences of his ambition were his internal consequences. Macbeth’s ambition was constantly putting him in a stru ggle between right and wrong. Macbeth finally lost this battle, and succumbed to the evil side of his ambition. Being the successful, proud, and noble warrior that he was, maybe this loss of what was good inside of him was the root of Macbeth’s insanity. One will never know, but it can be said that Macbeth’s ambition, whether through his actions or through his own internal degradation, did ultimately lead to his demise.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Abroad and Overseas

Abroad and Overseas Abroad and Overseas Abroad and Overseas By Maeve Maddox Lucia Waterman asks: What is the difference between abroad and overseas? When use it? As adverbs meaning out of ones own country, abroad and overseas are used interchangeably, as can be seen in these headlines and the text that follows them: Renewable energy money still going abroad, despite criticism from Congress Money from the 2009 stimulus bill to help support the renewable energy industry continues to flow overseas†¦ Lawyer Barred from Going Abroad Authorities ban a Chinese rights lawyer from traveling overseas. Overseas and abroad can also be used as adjectives, but overseas is used before a noun, while abroad always comes after the word it describes. In an increasingly global economy, overseas employment is becoming a realistic alternative for many people. Thin U.S. job market translates study abroad into work abroad Heres a headline that manages to use both overseas and abroad as adjectives to describe the same noun: Overseas Jobs Abroad, International Jobs in Caribbean Cayman Islands As adverbs, overseas and abroad are not always interchangeable. Travelers from the United States to Canada or Mexico can be said to be going abroad, but it would make little sense to say that they are going overseas. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Regarding Re:Five Spelling Rules for "Silent Final E"Phrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns

Monday, October 21, 2019

Stacker 2s essays

Stacker 2's essays Stacker 2s, the worlds strongest fat burner! is a caffeine based supplement designed to burn calories fast enough to see results in just 45 minutes. All fat burners rely on heat to burn our bodys fat. Our bodies have three large heat sources: the thyroid hormones, the adrenergic hormones (epinephrine and the weaker norepinephrine), and the prostaglandin hormones. Stacker 2 and other ECA-based fat burners seem to mimic and intensify the adrenergic hormones, which mobilize fatty acids from our triglyceride stores and force the skeletal muscles to use more fatty acids for heat production. Aspirin may inhibit the "bad" prostaglandins that lower your body temperature. Stacker 2 is a very simple fat burner that reliess on the work of ephedrine. Although ephedrine is successful in the fat-burning department, I will explain later how harmful and deadly this supplement can actually become. Ephedrine has been shown to increase the effectiveness of thermogenesis (fat burning) in the body. It has powerful effects on the cellular mechanisms that control fat release from fat cells. Some of these effects include contributing to the release and blocking the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. This gives norepinephrine the ability to continuously stimulate receptors in your body, causing fat cell "flood gates" to open and facilitate fat loss. The Chinese herb ma huang is the chief natural source of the ephedrine family of compounds, although there are other minor sources, such as Sida cordifolia. The second key thermogenic ingredient caffeine is a methylxanthine that stimulates hormone-induced fat burning. Kola nut is the caffeine source in Stacker 2. Caffeine works by increasing free fatty-acid concentrations and adrenaline levels. This results in greater lipolysis (oxidation of fats for energy), which can drain your fat stores over time. This change in a muscle's utilizat...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Nothing wrong with Hopefully as Modal Adjunct

Nothing wrong with Hopefully as Modal Adjunct Nothing wrong with Hopefully as Modal Adjunct Nothing wrong with Hopefully as Modal Adjunct By Maeve Maddox My 2009 edition of the Associated Press Stylebook has this to say about hopefully: It means in a hopeful manner. Do not use it to mean it is hoped, let us hope or we hope. The 2012 edition of the AP Stylebook reverses that dictum. Professional writers who follow that guide may now use the word to mean â€Å"it is hoped,† â€Å"we hope† and â€Å"let us hope† without opprobrium. It’s gratifying that AP has finally acknowledged that hopefully can be used as a modal adjunct as well as a manner adjunctespecially as English speakers have been using it that way for at least eighty years. Used as a â€Å"manner adjunct,† an adverb answers the question â€Å"how?† about a verb, as in â€Å"He saw her clearly.† Used as a â€Å"modal adjunct,† an adverb modifies the entire sentence, as in â€Å"Clearly, he saw her at the coffee shop.† Here the word doesn’t tell â€Å"how† he saw, but thatwithout any doubthe saw her. Because the AP change of attitude has stirred such fury among so many, I wanted to see what Fowler had to say about hopefully in his landmark work Modern English, published in 1926. He had nothing to say about hopefully, but plenty about the misuse of the verb hope. Hopefully is absent also from Horwill’s Modern American Usage (OUP, 1935). According to an article by Geoffrey Pullum in the Chronicle of Higher Education, usage specialist Wilson Follett (1886-1963) started the trouble with hopefully, calling its modal use â€Å"unEnglish and eccentric.† Although Strunk had made no mention of the despicable use of hopefully in the original version of Elements of Style, and although editor and expander E.B. White did not think to include it in his 1959 revision, he inserted it with an emotional note in the 1972 revision: Such use is not merely wrong, it is silly. it offends the ear of manywho do not like to see words dulled or eroded, particularly when the erosion leads to ambiguity, softness, or nonsense. I suspect that this testy note in the over-venerated Elements has had a lot to do with spreading Follett’s prejudice. William Safire, who wrote a respected column on language for the NY Times Magazine from 1979 until his death in 2009, at first rejected, but then accepted the modal use of hopefully; he was called â€Å"a lousy quitter† for his trouble. Both the OED and Merriam-Webster include definitions for the modal use of hopefully. The earliest recorded use in the OED is dated 1932; M-W notes that an 18th century (1702) example has been found in a book written by Cotton Mather. OED warns that â€Å"many writers avoid it.† M-W says that the word still has â€Å"a few die-hard critics,† but concludes that â€Å"most usage commentators have by now come to realize that it is entirely standard.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Compared "to" or Compared "with"?3 Cases of Complicated HyphenationEpidemic vs. Pandemic vs. Endemic

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Character analysis on the character Mrs. Mallard in the story of an Essay

Character analysis on the character Mrs. Mallard in the story of an hour by kate chopin - Essay Example It suggests that Mrs. Mallard was feeling restricted and limited by the demands of marriage and that the death of her husband was giving her hope of regaining her independence and individuality. This could be the reason why the narrator describes that Mrs. Mallard has â€Å"slender hands†, â€Å"dull eyes† and eminent â€Å"physical exhaustion†. In fact, the narrator’s account of Mrs. Mallard’s physical exhaustion is analogous of a ghost haunting her body and soul. This shows that the bounds of marriage have been taking a toll on Mrs. Mallard (Chopin 11). Mrs. Mallard is integrated into her society’s tradition. It is clear that the people in her society mourn the departure of their loved one. Richard, Mallard’s friend â€Å"leaves the office† and joins Josephine, Mrs. Mallard’s sister, in consoling and comforting Mrs. Mallard. Her sorrow is manifest and when she feels overcome by a feeling of elation, she locks herself upstairs. This is probably because she is ashamed of such a feeling and the fear to be construed as one who rejoices in the pain of others. However, locking herself upstairs was also meant to give Mrs. Mallard space to indulge the feeling of freedom away from the eyes of others (Chopin 13). There is symbolism in the excerpt where Mrs. Mallard locks herself upstairs. The narrator paints Mrs. Mallard as a goddess of victory that could be an allusion to the mythical goddess of Athena. If at all this was the narrator’s intended allusion, there is an irony in it. This is because goddess Athena was believed to be the defender of her family but Mrs. Mallard is instead experiencing freedom after her husband’s death. As a goddess though, she gets the authority and the power to order people especially when she authoritatively tells Josephine, â€Å"go away†, when she knocked at her door. The room she locks herself in comes out as her court of majesty wherein she

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Responsibilities of Nurse managers Assignment

The Responsibilities of Nurse managers - Assignment Example Nurse empowerment also minimizes chances of employee burnout, being strained by work and, experiencing feelings of frustration and failure. Empowered nurses are not only motivated but also motivate other healthcare professionals by sharing the power tools and nurse managers should encourage this. Nurse empowerment can be used to build respect and trust in the workplace. The enhanced workplace aspects positively influence the behaviors and attitudes of nurses to a great extent because empowering workplaces increase feelings of organizational respect, justice and trust in management. This also encourages positive relationships with superiors, subordinates and peers within the workplace leading to the establishment of effective alliances. Nurse managers should, therefore, ensure the administration organizational justice through fair organizational processes and making of rational decisions, interpersonal justice through treatment of individuals with respect and dignity and, informationa l justice through the provision of quality and timely information. Nurse empowerment also increases autonomy among nurses which encourages them to bring out their special talents and apply them to improve the ways of accomplishing tasks in the workplace. Nurse managers should encourage and allow the expression of talents among nurses. Evaluation of staff retention tactics Good pay is a nice staff retention tactic. However, employees are not just concerned with salary. Instead, they seek for continual career advancement and learning opportunities. Nurse managers should, therefore, focus on paths to nurse advancement by understanding what is important for them in terms of their professional lives, and help them design their work and learning around that. They should also develop clear career paths for each nurse and help them set career goals frequently. Organizational credibility, employee treatment and work conditions are also very critical. Nurse managers should, therefore, ensure the provision of good work conditions, treat nurses as individuals, and advocate for the fulfillment of organizational pledges to employees. The ability to adjust to an organization is important thus nurse managers should ensure a smooth on board experience to assist new nurses adjust to the organization and become productive more quickly. Judgment of the importance of communication Effective and sufficient communication in nursing is important. It facilitates timely two way delivery of information between nurses, their superiors, patients and co-workers. It also allows nurses to obtain information from the patients, give them information and act as an effective liaison between the patient and the doctor. Nurse managers should, therefore, ensure the development of and assess communication skills among all nurses to ensure nurses are competent in giving and receiving information. This encompasses spoken language, proximity, eye-contact and therapeutic relationship and spatial awarene ss. Nurse managers should also note the things that can cause communication breakdown and plan to counter them, for example improper shift change among nurses, lack of trust, and conflict among nurses among others. They should also create an environment of confidence. Comparing challenges in the management of generational issues Today’

Government & Business in Southeast Asia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Government & Business in Southeast Asia - Essay Example Southeast Asia has a patrimonial government that enables corruption in all areas of government, authoritarian politics, open bureaucracies, and unregulated market prices. This kind of system works positively on the economy but for a period. The ownership of businesses is to certain families and such businesses are passed on to the next generation. The beauty of this is that the business does not give an account of its activities either to the government or to shareholders. However, such businesses cannot sustain the economy for a long period. As businesses transfer ownership from one generation to the other, mismanagement of funds occurs and withdrawal of capital can cause closure of a business. In a patrimonial leadership, â€Å"rules are applied with partiality and some citizens get partiality treatment† (Brinkerhoff & Goldsmith, 2007, p.7). This calls for corruption in leadership. Businesses bribe the politicians and higher government authorities to evade taxes and customs. This eventually leads to a government that cannot sustain itself and with a big deficit. Statistics show that one of the causes of East Asia economic crisis in 1997 and 1998 is corruption, mass economic distortions, and inefficiencies. In addition, â€Å"A Patrimonial leadership is characterized by administrators who are promoted as a reward for personal connections with political leaders† (Brinkerhoff & Goldsmith, 2007, p.7). Leaders in any economy ought to follow the right channels in their selection. That is on competitive bases on merit and expertise. This enabled them to carry out their accordingly with professionalism and strategically plan for the future. To add to this, businesses need such leaders to take advantage of emerging opportunities and use them to overcome the threat in the market. This empowers an economy to compete with itself and with its neighborhoods.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Should the EU focus on acting as a civilian, normative or military Essay

Should the EU focus on acting as a civilian, normative or military power - Essay Example Before answering the question whether the EU should focus on being a civilian, normative, or military power, it is important to establish how these different forms of power have historically manifested in the EU's policies and activities. Conceptualising the terms 'civilian', 'normative', and 'military' is important in any analysis where these terms are used to describe the activities of EU's. Maull's (1990) view of a civilian power includes the employment of "solidarity with other societies, and a sense of responsibility for the future of the world - and particularly the global environment". (p.106) It is important to note that Maull's analysis of the exercise of civilian power is quite restrictive as it relates to the state or the exercise of national civilian power. Thus using a 'statist' perspective of the exercise of civilian power in the context of a supranational EU, would have its possible limitations. Vital lessons can, however, be drawn from his analysis and can be transpos ed into the EU's experience. Manner's (2002) conception of the EU as a civilian power is interpreted primarily in economic terms. Simply put, civilian power can be said to be the exercise of non-military power and would include "economic, diplomatic and cultural policy instruments." (Smith, n.d. p.1) Smith's conception of civilian power would thus exclude any use of the military, even if the military were used in situations of peace-keeping, whether armed or unarmed. To Smith (n.d.) even though the military can be used in unarmed peace-keeping situations, they have also been trained to kill and thus such an activity cannot be said to be civilian. Smith (n.d.) further identifies four core elements in the exercise of civilian power - "means; ends; use of persuasion; and civilian control over foreign (and defence) policymaking". (p.2) Consequently, in employing civilian policies, the means and the ends of those policies must be non-military, with persuasion (and not coercion) being the main instruments of achieving policy objectives. Based on the above conception of civilian power, Smith (n.d.) has argued in relation to the EU that: " clinging to the notion of civilian power EU not only stretches the term 'civilian' past its breaking point, but also tends to induce excessively rosy-eyed views of the EU as an international actor. 'Civilian' often means 'good', and deploying the 'civilian power EU' argument can close down critical analysis of actual EU foreign policy activities". (p.1) With regards to concepts of normative power, Manners (2002) views the EU's normative power as its capacity to mould or influence notions of what constitutes 'normal' in politics at the international arena. This exercise of normative power is very evident in the EU's relationship with Africa. The Council of the European Union has for instance stated that "Europe has a strong interest in a peaceful, prosperous and democratic Africa. Our strategy is intended to help Africa achieve this. "Â  

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 19

Strategic Management - Essay Example According to him, this is the â€Å"VRIN† resource based view of a company. Cohesive leadership, brand equity, brand value, trademarks, patents and copy rights are certain types of VRIN resources of a firm (Srivastava1, Franklin and Martinette, 2013). These resources of the companies should be coupled with proficient â€Å"capabilities† for generating the best outcomes from the operational activities of a concern. Through acquisition of rare resources and capabilities, companies can generate significant entry barriers within its industry. The differentiation strategies of the firms can be successful only with the help of extraordinary resources and capabilities. Sustained competitive advantages of giant multinational companies can be attained only through acquisition of unique productive factors.VRIN resources and its internal capabilities are strategically valuable for a company for certain special features. These resources helps an organization create value for its customers and this value exceeds the cost of its operations. The value of the consumers depends on prices of a product or a service of a company (Srivastava1, Franklin and Martinette, 2013). Through VRIN resources a company can lower its product or service pri ces more than that of its competitors and hence tap a wider base of customers. By achieving greater competitive advantages, a company can earn more profit than its market rivals. The factors causing commercial prosperity of successful multinational companies as Apple, Amazon and Ikea can be effectively analyzed through VRIN analysis model. The tangible and intangible resources of Apple Inc. are its valuable to its business. The land buildings acquired the company, its capital resources and equipments types of its valuable resources in business. The brand reputation of the concern, its trademarks and patents are also types of insubstantial factors. High social and commercial prosperity can be achieved by Apple Inc. only

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Should the EU focus on acting as a civilian, normative or military Essay

Should the EU focus on acting as a civilian, normative or military power - Essay Example Before answering the question whether the EU should focus on being a civilian, normative, or military power, it is important to establish how these different forms of power have historically manifested in the EU's policies and activities. Conceptualising the terms 'civilian', 'normative', and 'military' is important in any analysis where these terms are used to describe the activities of EU's. Maull's (1990) view of a civilian power includes the employment of "solidarity with other societies, and a sense of responsibility for the future of the world - and particularly the global environment". (p.106) It is important to note that Maull's analysis of the exercise of civilian power is quite restrictive as it relates to the state or the exercise of national civilian power. Thus using a 'statist' perspective of the exercise of civilian power in the context of a supranational EU, would have its possible limitations. Vital lessons can, however, be drawn from his analysis and can be transpos ed into the EU's experience. Manner's (2002) conception of the EU as a civilian power is interpreted primarily in economic terms. Simply put, civilian power can be said to be the exercise of non-military power and would include "economic, diplomatic and cultural policy instruments." (Smith, n.d. p.1) Smith's conception of civilian power would thus exclude any use of the military, even if the military were used in situations of peace-keeping, whether armed or unarmed. To Smith (n.d.) even though the military can be used in unarmed peace-keeping situations, they have also been trained to kill and thus such an activity cannot be said to be civilian. Smith (n.d.) further identifies four core elements in the exercise of civilian power - "means; ends; use of persuasion; and civilian control over foreign (and defence) policymaking". (p.2) Consequently, in employing civilian policies, the means and the ends of those policies must be non-military, with persuasion (and not coercion) being the main instruments of achieving policy objectives. Based on the above conception of civilian power, Smith (n.d.) has argued in relation to the EU that: " clinging to the notion of civilian power EU not only stretches the term 'civilian' past its breaking point, but also tends to induce excessively rosy-eyed views of the EU as an international actor. 'Civilian' often means 'good', and deploying the 'civilian power EU' argument can close down critical analysis of actual EU foreign policy activities". (p.1) With regards to concepts of normative power, Manners (2002) views the EU's normative power as its capacity to mould or influence notions of what constitutes 'normal' in politics at the international arena. This exercise of normative power is very evident in the EU's relationship with Africa. The Council of the European Union has for instance stated that "Europe has a strong interest in a peaceful, prosperous and democratic Africa. Our strategy is intended to help Africa achieve this. "Â  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Estimating Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Estimating - Essay Example Therefore, the calculation of the height of the building will be as follows; This means that the height of the tower from the first floor is 108ft. However, in order to find the total height of the building from the ground floor, 15ft have to be added to the total 108ft. Therefore, the total estimated height of the tower from the ground floor to the indicated place will be 123ft. This estimation method is better since there is no information provided about the height of the floors. Even though the estimation method cannot provide accurate data, it is the best method for estimating the towers length up to the indicated place. In order to calculate the total load the foundation of the tower must carry, assumptions have to be made based on the universal measurements used for the construction of towers and buildings. One can assume that the tower is 8m wide and 16m long, the wall, that is above the foundation, is 1.0kN/ m, the piers are 300mm, and the walls are 200mm thick. The mass of the concrete used in the construction is 2400kg/m3. Below is the calculation for each floor which will later be multiplied by the number of floors present in the tower. From the calculations above, the total amount of load on the foundation is equaled to 324 * 10 = 3240kN. The factor 10 has been used since it is the number of floors that are evident in the image provided. The result obtained are a rough estimate since there are no accurate data provided by the

Monday, October 14, 2019

Segmentation, Targeting and positioning strategy for MEENA BAZAAR Essay Example for Free

Segmentation, Targeting and positioning strategy for MEENA BAZAAR Essay Segmentation, Targeting and positioning of Agora : Market Targeting: Service targeted at selected customer Strategy: 1. concentrated marketing strategy to serve a single market ; Segmentation: Apporx. 20,000 target customers represents this market with geographic, demographic and psychographic correspondence 1. Geographic: Urban dealers staying at Dhaka and more specifically in Dhanmondi, Gulshan, Uttara, Malibag and Mirpur area; 2. Demographic segmentation: SEC A or Upper class with at least a monthly household income of 35000+ and Married people of age 25 and above with a family of 3 to more members 3. Psychographic segmentation: Actualizer, achiever and experiencer who are not more than 13% of SEC A+ population Habituated in modern lifestyle. Looking for convenience in every means e.g. Cooking, hence preferred frozen food as well as during shopping, Quality of service and product is non-negotiable and ready to expense more to meet the need. Willing to improve their quality of life with lifestyle choice 4. Product related segmentation: Every day user of at least one product or service provided by the company Positioning: Agora promises a valuable shopping experience that provides frozen foods to meet the convenient need of its customers. It aims to consistently provide a remarkably satisfying and valuable shopping experience through a business that provides quality product for customers and team members. With a brand core essence: Opportunity Analysis for MEENA BAZAAR: Opportunity Identification: with Buyers type: Socio Economic Psychographic type: (Ref. BBS 2010 HH penetration data) Global -1.4 mio of total HH with an average monthly income of 35000+ , mostly achievers and experiencer who are enjoying their life at fullest.; AGORA Reached only 0.14% of total  population (Ref, Aagora web page) Seeking Striving – 2.9 mio of total HH with an average monthly income of 20000.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Environmental Management Case Study of AkzoNobel

Environmental Management Case Study of AkzoNobel Abstract In modern business, sustainability has become of great importance when determining a companys strategy.   AkzoNobel, a company that produces chemicals, paint, paper and pulp, is well aware of this evolution and has built its business model around it. This case study aimed to analyze and review AkzoNobels environmental- and sustainability performance by exploring the companys webpage as well as other critical resources. The management of the company was analyzed, along with the tools, methods and metrics that are used to reach set objectives. Furthermore, the environmental- and sustainability policy was related to the ISO14001 requirements. It was determined that, although AkzoNobel puts in significant effort to include environmental aspects in its long term goals, it is clear that their sustainability agenda is a tool for boosting their reputation to outcompete their competitors. Table of Content Abstract 2 Table of Content 3 Introduction 4 Environmental Management 4 Executive body 5 Driving forces 5 Objectives/Comparison with Sweden 5 Environmental Policy 7 Sustainable systems 7 Tools, methods metrics 8 Eco-premium products 8 Environmental Assessment Tools 9 Safety 9 Product stewardship 9 Managing scarce resources 9 ISO14001 and AkzoNobel 9 Suppliers sustainability 11 Supplier visit 11 Vendor compliance letter 12 Key supplier management program 12 Sustainability focus areas 12 Climate change AKZO Nobel 12 Position 12 Achievements 13 The Future 13 Discussion 14 Conclusion 15 References 16 Introduction AkzoNobel is the largest global paint and coating manufacturer in the world and a leading producer of specialty chemicals, pulp and paper. It is a company of about 57,000 employees that are situated in more than 80 countries. The companys slogan is Tomorrows answer today. In other words, their strategy is to produce products that are far more advanced compared to their competition. With todays concern about environmental issues, this competitive edge comes with producing products that are deemed sustainable. Therefore, the forefront of AkzoNobels agenda, it can be said that sustainability is the key word in AkzoNobels business. The aim of this report is to review the environmental and sustainability management performance of AkzoNobel. The objectives of this report are to: Give a short description of AkzoNobels activities and to investigate their executive body; Analyze the driving forces behind the environmental management performance of the company; Define the most significant environmental aspects of AkzoNobel and relate them to Swedens Environmental Objectives; Critically analyze the environmental/sustainability policy; Identify and analyze the different environmental and sustainability management tools, methods and metrics; Provide AkzoNobels position on global warming; Describe AkzoNobels supplier and vendor policy; Examine their business strategy in relation to business opportunity; Judge their actual sustainability performance; and Comment on outside criticism of the company. Environmental Management When a company sets its goals towards sustainability, it is often necessary to completely rework the way in which the company is managed. In order to successfully improve negative social and environmental impacts, it is essential for the company to integrate these factors into every day decision making (Epstein, 2008). AkzoNobels management team has claimed to have done this by the appointing a management team that has sustainability at its utmost priority. Executive body AkzoNobel has established an executive committee (ExCo) which is composed of five members of the board of management and four leaders with functional expertise. This arrangement allows business and function to be taken equally into account while managing the company. The functions that are now representing the ExCo are: HR Organizational Development, Research, Development Innovation, Legal  and Supply Chain/Sourcing. The ExCO shares powers and responsibility for managing the company under the chairmanship of the CEO, Hans Wijer. (AkzoNobel, 2011c) AkzoNobel also has a special Sustainable Development Group. This team is composed of 13 individuals with background studies ranging from chemistry to economics and from environmental sciences to policy and management. (AkzoNobel, 2011g) Driving forces In 2008, AkzoNobel put in place a strategy with a sustainable agenda. Their specific sustainability objectives were to: Remain in the top three in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes; Reduce the total reportable rate of injuries to 2.0 per million working hours by 2015; and Deliver a step change in people development, in part through substantially improving the diversity in the company. (AkzoNobel, 2011e) The first point connects the companys business side and its environmental objectives together. Investors are increasingly focusing on investing in companies that set industry-wide best practices with regard to sustainability. Sustainability has become attractive to investors because it aims to increase long-term shareholder value. Sustainability leaders are increasingly expected to show superior performance and favorable risk/return profile (Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes, 2011). Consequently, a company with a sustainable agenda is considered a good investment. AkzoNobel is well aware of this as can be seen in their business principles when they state: We need to make sustainable profits if our business is to thrive (AkzoNobel, Business Principles, 2011a). The companys sustainable agenda also mentioned that they aim to reduce the reportable rate of injuries. AkzoNobel is a company that works with substances and chemicals that have high environmental and health risks. Companies fear having a reputation for a high number of injured employees or for causing environmental damage. Because AkzoNobel handles these types of substances it is consequently under the microscope. In order to avoid pressure from environmental advocacy groups such as Greenpeace or to avoid bad media, it is of strong interest to account for environmental aspects as well as the safety and health of its employees. Objectives/Comparison with Sweden According to the companys website, AkzoNobel set its targets on the following objectives towards sustainability: Improving safety performance; Increasing turnover from eco-premium products  which are both eco-efficient and attract a premium; Developing sustainable water management   at all sites; Reducing carbon emissions from cradle to gate; Adherence to and training in the companies Code of Conduct ; Strengthening the diversity of the companys workforce; and Implementing leading people development programs (AkzoNobel, 2011b). From these targets it is clear that AkzoNobel considers a well trained and ambitious workforce an important step towards sustainability. It can also be seen that there is an emphasis on the responsibility of the workforce. It is important for the company that its personnel are aware of the sustainable targets and that the employees take part in reaching them. In comparison, Swedens Environmental Objectives are the following: Reduced Climate Impact Clean Air Natural Acidification Only A Non-Toxic Environment A Protective Ozone Layer A Safe Radiation Environment Zero Eutrophication Flourishing Lakes and Streams Good-Quality Groundwater A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos Thriving Wetlands Sustainable Forests A Varied Agricultural Landscape A Magnificent Mountain Landscape A Good Built Environment A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life (Government offices of Sweden, 2011) The management of AkzoNobel is in line with most of Swedens environmental objectives. They are aware of the need to reduce carbon emissions and employ sustainable water management. Furthermore, the production of eco-efficient products is a step towards a non-toxic environment. Eka Chemical is AkzoNobels daughter company that specializes in specialty chemicals, pulp and paper. Their goal is to have pulp and paper products that are made from sustainably sourced fibers (i.e. sustainable forestry), while using energy from renewable sources and discharge only of water that is cleaned after production (AkzoNobel, 2011d). Taking into concern its environmental aspects, AkzoNobel has a clear aim towards one of Swedens Environmental Objectives, which is A Good Built Environment. Environmental Policy Within a company, the principles of environmental policy are the foundation for implementing a sustainable system. Usually full support at the top management level is needed to make such a system work and to gain the attention of all employees inside the organization (ISO 14001,2010). The term Environmental Policy can be defined as: any [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦] action deliberately taken [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦] to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce, or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans. (Fairbridge Technologies, 2009). As mentioned previously, AkzoNobel really takes care of its reputation for being a sustainable company. This, again, is mentioned in their Vendor Policy. The slogan Tomorrows Answer today shows that this topic is omnipresent and AkzoNobel not only explains that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦sustainability is at the heart of everything we do but also that they have integrated sustainability into every area of their business. (AkzoNobel, 2011a) Sustainable systems Sustainable systems are considered ones that take into account not only environmental aspects but also social and economic ones. The main goal of an Environmental Management System is to improve all three aspects simultaneously without losing performance in one. AkzoNobel uses a sustainability framework which is part of the managing our values ideal. Former key points such as integrity, governance and compliance are now being replaced with new topics such as value creation through process excellence, innovation and talent development. More specifically, AkzoNobels sustainability framework focuses on three concepts: Improve: continue to comply with environmental and social regulations to ensure a license to operate. This point is considered to be the core element of how AkzoNobel, as a company, operates. Manage: include sustainability in all aspects of the value chain. Invent: integrate sustainable value propositions to develop a long-term strategic value. (AkzoNobel, 2009) Tools, methods metrics The global strategy of AkzoNobel is to integrate sustainability in all aspects of the value chain, to decrease their carbon footprint and to make profits from these standardized systems. It starts in the early stage of market research across sales and ends in cooperation with stakeholders. Furthermore, AkzoNobel highlights the essential aspect of long-term opportunities for their business which should be reached by these tools, methods and metrics. In the following theres a detailed list of the sustainability actions in the company. Eco-premium products AkzoNobel analyzes all of their products by quantitative or qualitative measurements every time they bring a new product on the market. In order to be deemed an eco-premium product, the product must score significantly better than a currently available product in at least one of the following categories: Toxicity Energy Efficiency Use of Natural Resources and Raw Materials Emissions Waste Land use and risk (AkzoNobel, 2009) Environmental Assessment Tools As mentioned previously, AkzoNobel quantitatively and qualitatively measures the sustainability of all products before they are considered suitable for sales. In order to conduct these assessments, the company implements the use environmental assessment tools such as life cycle analysis, environmental impacts analysis, carbon footprint analysis, eco footprint analysis and eco efficiency assessment. Environmental tools, such as the ones mentioned, are essential for turning data into environmental business strategies. Data for each of the tools is gathered from in house personnel, measurements, authorities, etc. and the conclusions from each report are used for negotiations, reducing costs, meeting permit requirements, improving efficiency, meeting customer demand and setting sustainability targets. (AkzoNobel, 2010b) Safety The establishment of a behavior-based safety program and a new Safety Leadership Program for head management is an efficient method of improving the injury rate for employees and contractors. This figure is also influenced by the integration of standards for process safety and occupational health and the, so called, Health, Safety, Environment and Security (HSES) audit process. The aim is to share good practice all over the company with corporate HSES audits to analyze progress. (AkzoNobel, 2009) Product stewardship To guarantee that AkzoNobel fulfills all legal and ethical requirements for their products (according to REACH, GHS etc.), a Global Product Stewardship and Regulatory Affairs Council has been established. Their tasks are to integrate good practice from the company into a product stewardship framework and to ensure that supplies, training and audits are optimized step by step. (AkzoNobel, 2009) Managing scarce resources AkzoNobel puts in a significant amount of effort in reducing the carbon footprint of their products and creating more value for the customer at the same time. Sourcing managers have been installed to identify focus areas for improvement and develop a carbon management plan in a dialogue with suppliers. In the future, AkzoNobel wants to learn more about customer applications to become more efficient in their environmental management. (AkzoNobel, 2009) ISO14001 and AkzoNobel The ISO 14000 family of environmental management standards can be used to implement a successful environmental management system. Specifically, ISO 14001 can be considered the most important framework for organizations around the world to reach their environmental goals and keep an effective environmental system running. The cyclical process of plan, do, act and check are similar to the ISO 9000 family (Quality Management) but focused on environmental issues. Nevertheless, it is possible to combine the two because it is voluntary for companies to implement these systems. Therefore, every organization regardless of size or sector has the ability to implement ISO 14001. Two different companies can run two completely different environmental management systems but both according to the framework in ISO 14001. The basic principle which distinguishes ISO 14001 from all other strategies is the Concept of Continual Improvement Process (CIP). This concept ensures that products are continually being monitored and improved to adhere to environmental and safety regulations. (Envirocip, 2011; Environmental Management System, 2011; ISO, 2009) ISO 14001 consists of four basic points (figure 1). They are similar to traditional generalized strategic planning and are following: Plan Do Check Act (ISO, 2009) Figure 1: ISO 14001(Jonsson, L. 2011) An explanation of each step and its connection with AkzoNobels business policy is as follows. Plan: Environmental management system implementation In the first step of the PDCA-cycle, environmental goals are defined and strategic processes are created to reach them. Ideally those targets are measurable so it also gives a framework for a control system. AkzoNobel installed sourcing managers to take care of their carbon management plan and to find new focus areas for improvement and development together with suppliers. (AkzoNobel 2009; ISO, 2009; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008) Do: Conduct life cycle assessment and manage environmental aspects During this step, the company begins the life cycle assessment process and determines how to manage environmental aspects. This step requires that documentation be taken throughout the entire assessment, control systems are run, employees are educated and emergency plans are established. One example of how AkzoNobel deals with this step in the ISO 14001 process is the implementation of the EUs REACH-Project in 2007. This program involved changing the requirements and rules for suppliers which how AkzoNobel educated their contractors to manage environmental aspects differently. (AkzoNobel ,2007a) Check: Conduct audits and evaluate environmental performance The check step in the ISO 14001 involves screening, measuring and controlling all processes and products controlled by internal audits etc. AkzoNobel is very proud of its Eco-Premium Products. They give this label to new products after positive analyses of their carbon footprint. (AkzoNobel 2009; ISO, 2009; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008). Act: Communicate and use environmental declarations and claims During this stage, companies determine whether their goals and targets within their Environmental Management System were fulfilled. In AkzoNobel, a Product Stewardship System controls and improves all activities from cradle until gate. An effective way to follow this step of the ISO-framework is to check the current situation, and go back and find a better solution in a continuous process. (AkzoNobel 2009; ISO, 2009; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008) Suppliers sustainability As mentioned previously, AkzoNobel claims to have implemented sustainability into every area of their business. As per this initiative, part of their long-term strategic goal is to build relationships and work with partners that help the company increase its sustainability. Currently, AkzoNobel requires suppliers of raw materials to adhere to certain restrictions with regards to social and environmental standards. This is laid out by the AkzoNobel Vendor Policy- a document that formulates the conditions that suppliers are legally bound to. The conditions that vendors must comply to have been broken down into four categories: supplier visits, vendor compliance letter, key management program, and sustainability focus areas. (AkzoNobel, 2011h) Supplier visit AkzoNobel regularly conducts support visits with their vendors. The purposes of these visits are to not only ensure that AkzoNobels restrictions are being met but also to provide sustainability counseling. AkzoNobels personnel give suggestions and act as environmental consultants to their suppliers. Continual regular visits ensure that the suppliers have implemented the sustainability measures and have maintained their new strategies. This process is laid out in the Vendor Relationship Management Framework. (AkzoNobel, 2011h; AkzoNobel, 2011j) Vendor compliance letter As part of the legal obligation for vendors to adhere to AkzoNobels business principles, vendors are required to sign the Vendor Compliance Letter. This document contains AkzoNobels core values as well as a framework for labor, environmental, safety, and business relations guidelines. (AkzoNobel, 2011i) Key supplier management program This program aims to work with suppliers to increase and improve Eco-premium solutions for their customers. Regular meetings are conducted where suppliers and AkzoNobel agree upon new products that will continue success not only in economic terms, but also environmental sustainability terms. (AkzoNobel, 2011h) Sustainability focus areas AkzoNobel has developed sustainability focus areas (SFA) in order to source products and services that give the company the opportunity to significantly reduce their ecological footprint. These areas include: Logistics Travel Waste Management Packaging Carbon Management Renewable Raw Materials IT Lease Cars (AkzoNobel, 2011h) Climate change AKZO Nobel Position AkzoNobels position on climate change is laid out in the document AkzoNobels Position Statement. This document states that AkzoNobel recognizes climate change as a man-made global issue of great importance and, therefore, it is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions. In an effort to reduce their carbon footprint, AkzoNobel monitors, measures and studies all CO2 emissions related to industrial or production activities. Yearly, this data is compiled into reports that are in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol and provide an analysis of direct, indirect, and total CO2 emissions. From these reports, reduction goals and mitigation objectives are developed that the company aims to achieve by the following year. The 2015 target is to reduce carbon emissions by 10% (based on 2009 emissions) per ton of product and the 2020 target is to reduce carbon emissions by 20-25% (based on 2009 emissions). (AkzoNobel, 2008) Achievements AkzoNobel has been recognized as the global leader in sustainability in the chemicals industry. From 2006 to 2007 AkzoNobel has managed to decrease their carbon dioxide emissions from 5.2 (Million T c) to 3.3 (Million T c). From 2007 to 2008, AkzoNobel decreased their carbon dioxide emissions 1 percent per ton of production. Because AkzoNobel aims to significantly reduce their ecological footprint, they have set up a strategy to help reduce carbon-intensive processes and improve energy efficiency. Thus far, they have achieved the following: 73% of worldwide power consumption is based on zero and low carbon sources 37% of electricity in the production process is based on hydropower Considered in the top ten percent for energy efficiency in manufacturing salt-chlorine-PVC loop- on our their most energy intensive processes Use low carbon energy sources to produce their other two most energy intensive chemicals- sodium chlorate and hydrogen peroxide Trying to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources such as wood chips Assessed the eco-efficiency/carbon footprint of key products Developed several carbon efficient solutions for our customers Include energy efficiency and carbon footprint criteria in their investment decisions (AkzoNobel, 2008) Additionally, Scandinavias pulp and paper industry and Hollands base chemical production are AkzoNobels most energy intensive production plants. These two industries combined are responsible for 82% of AkzoNobels total energy use and 73% of their CO2 emissions. Recently, the pulp and paper chemicals production plant shifted 58% of its energy to hydropower. Also, the base chemicals plants were retrofitted with highly energy efficient, gas fired cogeneration units that produce steam and power. (AkzoNobel, 2007b) The Future AkzoNobel has made plans to invest in creating a system that produces steam from waste and biofuels. AkzoNobel also supports implementing a cap and trade system that encourages plants to become sustainable while punishing the unsustainable ones. Their position states that they support the development and implementation of the most energy efficient technologies worldwide. For the future, AkzoNobel is revising their 2008 Carbon Strategy to build new sustainability goals. This strategy will include plans to reduce carbon emissions in the area of manufacturing. (AkzoNobel, 2007b) Discussion After reviewing AkzoNobels business strategy, it is clear that AkzoNobel looks at high environmental/sustainability performance as a business opportunity. The company specifically aims to produce products that are economically as well as environmentally rewarding. Currently, sustainability and climate change issues are at the forefront of the global agenda. If AkzoNobel chose to disregard these issues and continued with business as usual their reputation would lack the high integrity which has been a key element to their success. Because this company has managed to significantly reduce their ecological footprint, they have received several awards, media attention, and PR. This attention does not go unrecognized as consumers are attracted to companies that hold such a high esteem. Additionally, it is well known amongst the general population that chemical production as well as pulp and paper production are two notoriously environmentally harmful industries. As the general population b ecomes increasingly involved and aware of environmental issues, AkzoNobels business and purchasing decisions begin to reflect it. It is, thus, in AkzoNobels best interest to address the companys sustainability and remain at the forefront of the global sustainability arena. If AkzoNobel chose to disregard sustainability issues it would, in the long-term, cause AkzoNobel to not be able to compete with its competitors in the market. This is in line with AkzoNobels philosophy of environmental stewardship and their understanding of customer demand as can be seen by the following AkzoNobel quotation: [Sustainable innovation process] SIP is driven by the need for better product performance but its always connected to sustainability and environmental performance. We cant bring a product to market that is less environmentally friendly than its predecessor and expect it to succeed. Equally, a new eco-product will only do well if it also offers real competitive advantage. (AkzoNobel, 2010a) Regardless of the companys attempt to address environmental/sustainability issues, AkzoNobel is nonetheless environmentally harmful. Producing chemicals, paint, paper, and pulp products is never done without an ecological price. However, AkzoNobel has made a significant effort to increase the companys environmental sustainability as much as possible. This has been done by developing strategies, goals, and plans through rigorous sustainability planning and the success of the activities have been monitored via environmental testing. Because reductions in VOCs, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions have been proven, the business activities of the company are in correlation to the environmental planning. As mentioned, companies in modern business are aware of the importance of being green. Unfortunately some of them fail to act green even though they present themselves as such. Greenpeace has set up a campaign to stop this so called Greenwashing and ask companies to: Clean up your act, NOT your image (Greenpeace, 2011). While surfing AkzoNobels webpage, it was clear that AkzoNobel was extremely proud of all its positive achievements but hardly mentioned when it didnt succeed or have a bad performance. However did SOMO (Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations) make a report in 2009 about AkzoNobel to provide additional information that AkzoNobel itself might not have reported, focusing on the 2008 annual report. In this report it was stated that in 2008 the Political Economy Research Institute (PERI) of the University of Massachusetts had ranked AkzoNobel in the 85th place on the Toxic 100 Index. This index indicates the top 100 air polluters in the U.S. on the basis of tota l human health hazards resulting from air toxics emissions at their facilities. (Knottnerus, 2009). It was also noted that in 2008, AkzoNobel had not fulfilled requirements about the usage and purchase of renewable energy. Knuttnerus mentioned more cases that were not environmentally friendly, though many were old, some even stationed back in the 1980s. Sustainability first became a fundamental principle in AkzoNobels business in 2004. The company had a quick success and already in 2008 it was in 2nd place on the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes. (Knottnerus, 2009). The company has succeeded a lot in a short time and its understandable that some things cant happen over a night. From our point of view AkzoNobel could think about taking part in the Chemical Leasing program coordinated by UNIDO to mitigate their environmental pollution. The idea of ChL is to establish a service-oriented business model and to guide customers away from buying and using too much chemicals for the purpose of the environment. The producer mainly sells the functions performed by the chemical and functional units are the main basis for payment. (UNIDO, 2010) Conclusion After analysis of AkzoNobels environmental/sustainability management performance, it is clear that the company has a strong sustainable agenda that is supported by all levels of management- an essential aspect for successful implementation of business strategies. To execute this plan, AkzoNobel established an Executive Committee and a special Sustainable Development group that focuses on these matters. The main driving force for the development of this strategy is to increase long-term share holder value. The company monitors and develops both their internal production as well suppliers through the use of several sustainability tools. It was determined that AkzoNobel uses this sustainability strategy as a business opportunity as well as a means of boosting their public image. Since it was difficult to find figures or statistics that showed negative environmental performance, it is unclear whether the company adheres to Greenpeaces campaign slogan Clean up your act, NOT your image. Ei ther way, it is important that modern day companies are transparent and do not forget to report their bad performance. Transparency and honesty in business is the best way to be trusted and to avoid being classified as a Greenwashing company.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Excess of Men in the Mishnaic Tractate Yoma :: essays research papers

The Excess of Men in the Mishnaic Tractate Yoma   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat and confess over it all the iniquities and transgressions of the Israelites, whatever their sins, putting them on the head of the goat; and it shall be sent off to the wilderness through a designated man (Leviticus 16.20).† â€Å"He who set the Azazel-goat free shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water; after that he may reenter the camp (Leviticus 16.26).† The preceding two quotes were the only mention of any people other than Aaron who were involved in the activities on the Day of Atonement. However, in the mishnaic tractate Yomah the mishnaic authors mention at least 50 other men who participate in the day’s events. It is unclear for this addition. Noticeably the groups of men are broken up into two distinct categories. The high priest is apparently trained, guided, and even observed by a group of elders of the court who eventually deliver him to the elders of the priest hood. The other group, was a group of men who completed many of the chosen High Priest’s simple minded and non exertive tasks. There is no specific name classification given to these men. This may be exemplary of their unimportance in the holy doings of the day. Unlike the need for elders of the court and priest hood, the necessity of these men is a bit unclear. It is unclear in the mishnaic tractate Yoma, as to why the many tasks performed by this nameless group of men could not just have been performed by the High Priest himself as it was by Aaron. The authors of this text write that â€Å"another priest was made ready in his stead lest aught should befall him to render him ineligible †¦ Also another wife was made ready for Page 2 him lest his own wife should die†¦ (Yoma 1:1)† Obviously one of the concerns for extra people in this day’s events is to assure that no matter what happens â€Å"the show must go on.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"They delivered unto him elders from among the elders of the Court, and they read before him out of the [prescribed] rite for the day; and they said to him, ‘My lord High Priest, do thou thyself recite with thine own mouth, lest thou hast forgotten or lest thou hast never learnt’. On the Day of Atonement in the morning they make him to stand at the Eastern Gate and pass before him oxen, rams, and a sheep, that he may gain knowledge and becomes versed in the [Temple-]Service (Yoma 1:3).

Friday, October 11, 2019

American Culture vs Lebanese Culture Essay

History and Geography are the most important factors that shape a given society’s culture; In Lebanon, religions are of great influence on the adopted values and assumptions; some will be discussed in the following to make the point about how history and geography have interfered to shape the Lebanese society as such, and then a comparison with the American values and their historical backgrounds will follow; -Family: being at the heart of the Arab world, where Christianity and Islam were born and spread later to the entire world, Lebanese people practice their religious believes in their different aspects, including those related to the family bounds and relations. Lebanese families have strong tights: the Respect to the Older, the extended kinship networks, the dependence of the Weak on the Strong (when youngsters depend on their parents until they become able to take responsibility of themselves, and then the dependence of the parents on their sons –and girls- when they become old and in need for their assistance); all these are the â€Å"normal† Lebanese expectations and values regarding the family. – History: Lebanese people give big importance to their history and they keep it in mind to learn from the mistakes of the past that cost them hundreds of thousands of souls; in Lebanon the term â€Å"we paid blood for this cause† is widely used. The Lebanese flag has two red bands at its top and bottom sides, to symbolize for the blood that has been shed for the sake of the country and all those martyrs who sacrificed their lives throughout the history. Lebanese history is very rich and full of invasions and struggles to freedom time after time, and this has left pride in Lebanese people of their past and determination to continue the same path in moralities and values regarding the country and their freedom. – Food: Conservation of Food that the Lebanese used to prepare each summer for the winter (called Mooneh), has its origins both from the cold winters where no food would be available, and from the famous WWI’s famine that stroke Lebanon, where only rich people and some farmers were able to survive since  they had some food stored in their warehouses. In addition, meat has to be Halal; that is the animal has to be slaughtered according to the Islamic way, even for Lebanese Christians who consider Halal meat healthier and more hygienic. In the Islamic regions of Lebanon, it’s not acceptable to request alcohol or to drink or be drunk when visiting a Muslim, as alcohol is forbidden in Islam. As it is offensive to request for food or to eat, drink or smoke in public during the day in Ramadan, where Muslims will be fasting by that time. While in the American context, history has also shaped the values of the American people, but obviously in different direction as the historical events and circumstances was far different from those experienced in Lebanon. Taking the above tackled examples, in the following is an analysis of these in the American context as compared to the Lebanese one. – Family: the social tissue of the American society is made up of immigrants from different parts of the world, and according to their origin, families have different values and social practices. Accordingly, families living in Michigan are similar in their family bounds and values to the Lebanese, as there is a big Lebanese Diaspora living in this state. While in other regions where most of the immigrants originate from North-Western Europe, families don’t have as strong bounds as the oriental people, and young adults’ dependence on their parents is considered as a shame and regarded to as immaturity. – History: in spite of the short history of the United States as compared to other countries – here to Lebanon- history has had great deal with shaping the American culture and its people’s values, and Americans as the Lebanese are proud of their history and show great respect for those who contributed to the nowadays constitutional laws and values. For instance, the famous war between the North and the South had its important footprints on the American values regarding the racial discrimination and the respect to the individual regardless his color or race. On the other hand, the interventions of President Roosevelt during the Great Economical Depression in order to create job opportunities and boost the economy, is being nowadays highly  appreciated and appraised by the Americans. – Food: the American culinary culture seems to have no relation with that found in the Lebanese food. Americans depend mostly on â€Å"Fast Food†, with little time needed to prepare; this might have its origins the shortage in time when women and men had both to work during the industrial revolution at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, no religious restrictions regarding the meat or alcohol, but rather a respect to some nutritional preferences like vegetarian and vegan food for some. Although each society has its own peculiarities, values and cultural distinction, globalization is now invading most societies in the world and shaping them into a new, more homogeneous society having pretty much the same Global Culture; the nature of that culture will be that of the most powerful societies’ who invade the weak ones culturally and prevail over them; only the strongest values will persist and this is another form of struggle. The most aspect of the American values I’ve adopted is independence as a woman coming from a Lebanese family. Although I was born and raised here, technically I am American; my family likes to think otherwise. My family is into the Lebanese culture very much. My father came to America when he was really young, maybe in his early 20s. He would visit Lebanon just about every summer and in 1983 he married my mother who was his neighbor. Soon after that my parents had my older brother, than my twin brother and I. My mother came to this country at the age of 22 (I think) and she started to bring over my uncles and grandmother. So, basically all of my family was here on my mother’s side except two of her sisters and one brother. We are very family oriented and I was the only girl so everyone was basically looking after me because they thought if I was to take the American way of things I would be wild and do whatever it is I wanted. That’s not how it works in the old country. The sister or daughter of the family is supposed to stay home, take care of the house, clean, cook, and cater to the father and/or brothers of her family. Since we lived in America and grew up here, I kind of had it the easy way, for a little while. I got away with almost everything. I was â€Å"daddy’s little girl,† whatever I wanted, I got. I think  it was because I was the only girl, for the most part. My father would get me any and everything I wanted. If my brothers were bothering me and I wanted to get them away from me, all I would do is scream â€Å"daddy, they’re hurting me† he would come running and they were the ones in trouble not me. Most of the time I would start the fight, so it was supposed to be my fault that we ended up fighting, but my father never knew that. He never wanted to see me cry or get hurt by my brothers who were rough and always play fighting. My biological father died when I was 7 years old of a heart attack and so my mother was left as a single parent taking care of two 7 year olds and a 12 year old. It was devastating, heart breaking; nothing has been the same since of course. My mom was extremely strict on us after the passing of my father, that was the only way she knew how to protect us from this â€Å"evil and cruel world† she would tell us. My mom had her mother and three brothers here; my father’s sister lived on the second floor of our house, so she wasn’t alone taking care of us. Of course mothers have their own way of taking care of their kids and she didn’t want anyone to change the way she was raising us or taking care of us. She made our lives very difficult at times because most of the kids we went to school with or lived around were always outside on the street playing but we weren’t allowed outside of the driveway because she always wanted her eye on us or someone always had to watch us. There was never a time where we were alone, especially me since I’m the girl of the family. My brothers had more privileges than I did be cause of course they were boys and I wasn’t. In 2001 that’s when things got a lot easier for my mother and us. She got remarried to a Lebanese man who was from the same city in Lebanon where we were from. She was happy and of course we were happy for her and as a family in general. A lot more freedom and independence came upon us. He is a very open-minded individual. He wasn’t living in America when my mother met him. He was visiting and ended up staying because him and my mom fell in love and got married. He sort of opened my mother’s mind up A LOT, for me. My brothers always had their freedom for the most part. My mom started letting me go to the park with my girlfriends, she let me go to birthday parties at friends houses. The option of sleeping over someone’s house was never there. I was very happy and thankful that God brought this man into our family. I  am very close to him; he is my step-father, of course. My father will never be replaced but a part of me always sits and thinks maybe my father brought this man into our lives; maybe he picked him out for my mom. He and my father are very similar people. When I was going into my junior year of high school my parents thought of this brilliant idea to move out of the city. It wasn’t so brilliant for us. We were living in Hyde Park. We left our childhood home, street, friends, parks, etc. It was a very sad thing to do. Our new home was in Attleboro, Ma. A very suburb area as oppose to Hyde Park. That’s where most of my independence and freedom took part. I’m thinking my mom was more lenient to letting me do things and go places because we were now living in the suburbs. I would go to my friend’s house, sometimes stay there until really late at night. When I turned 17 I learned how to drive, I got my permit and soon after my license. The most freedom a teenager has is when they’re able to drive themselves around and not depend on other people or their parents for a ride anywhere. My freedom and independence began here. It was the most wonderful time of my life. I would drive from Attleboro to Boston almost every other day. My mom knew where I would be going, to my best friend’s house in Boston or to visit my grandmother and uncles who still live in Hyde Park. The fact that my mother was letting me or allowing me to do all of these things defines where I have adopted the American â€Å"teenage† lifestyle in that point of my life. My religion is very important to my family and to me as well. I grew up in the Orthodox Christian church. I will always have this value from my native culture. I don’t think I’ll ever forget my religion or where my beliefs come from. I went to church every Sunday every since I was a little girl. As for now, I don’t go to church so much anymore. I live a busy life, like most Americans and especially Bostonians. I always have time for religion, there’s nothing wrong with prayer at home or wherever you are. My brothers and I went to a church camp out in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania called Antiochian Village. The mission of the Antiochian Village is to present to young people a living experience of the Holy Orthodox Faith, in their relationship with God and other campers in an uncluttered, natural environment. We were there for two weeks every summer. It was probably the best two weeks out of the whole year. I started going there when I was 12 years old until I was 17. I learned a lot about my religion, met life-long friends who I call family  now, and learned how to live without electronics attached to me every second of the day. It was a big challenge for me because I was so used to watching TV every day and using the phone to talk to friends, and playing video games. Our trips to the Village have taught self-awareness. I t’s a big aspect of my life. I think to accomplish the mission of the Village was to bring young people: * Awareness of self and fellow man * A broadening of their Orthodox life * A greater awareness of their religion * Good sportsmanship * Growth in personal relationships and personal responsibility * An appreciation of nature and a concern for the environment In Lebanon I see that religion is very powerful. When I go there for the summer there are always feasts and Saints days. There are huge celebrations for these feasts and Saints days. The whole town/city/village is a part of these celebrations. The churches are decorated with lights and candles and flowers. It’s beautiful. When I see these churches decorated like this, it makes me realize that there is a God. Without God there would be nothing. I wear jewelry to represent that I am religious; like a cross on my neck or sometimes prayer beads around my wrist. I make it very clear to people that I’m a big part of Christianity. Lebanese people can tell right away what religion you are. There are different crosses for the Catholic and Orthodox Christians. The Orthodox cross has a slightly different look than the Catholic one. For me — melting pot/salad bowl — it’s about a country of immigrants becoming stronger by both embracing the diversity of its cultures but also all feeling they do belong to one nation as well. I’m more of a melting pot. I’m more ethnic but have been combined with the American culture. I live my life more of the American lifestyle in some ways more than others apposes to the Lebanese lifestyle. I’m big into the equality of opportunity whereas in Lebanon the man is in charge of the household, most women are stay at home wives who take care of the household, cooking and cleaning. I’m more independent that the cousins I have in Lebanon. The only women in my family who work are the ones who have gone to University and have found good jobs  that are actually worth it. In America even if one doesn’t have a college degree there is a high possibility that they can be successful. It could be from knowing someone in a certain type of job or business where they can receive better privileges and get promoted easily with higher paying jobs and not even having to step foot in a college level course. Those are the perks of living in America and having opportunity. In Lebanon there are not many options. Middle class or very wealthy families put their children in college or universities. Some of the people in my family were very fortunate to go to college because their parents had to give up their dreams or sell a piece of land that was handed down to them from their fathers or grandfathers in order to pay for their college tuitions. As I said before independence is my number one turnover from the Lebanese culture to the American culture. Only the bravest women in my culture stand up to their families or husbands and choose to be independent. I have that opportunity without a doubt or without anyone having to tell me â€Å"No.† Of course I still have my values that come from my culture. These values are what make me who I am and best represent me as independent. In Lebanon the people are always giving a helping hand, Americans are the same way. I take that value very much inconsideration because I always try to help the less fortunate. I have so much to be thankful and grateful by the help of my parents and God that I try and give out a helping hand even if it’s a dollar. There are millions of charities to help the less fortunate in Lebanon and there are a million charities that I have contributed my money, clothes, shoes, jackets, etc. to. It gives me great pleasure to do so, it’s very frowned upon if you know someone who is less fortunate and doesn’t help them out with whatever it is possible that you can give in Lebanon and I’m sure in America as well. Some Americans are greedy or cheap and don’t like to give their belongings or money away to homeless or less fortunate people but for the most part I see a very large amount of contributors to these people. Happiness is a great value that I’ve inherited from both cultures; Lebanese and American. My mother always tells me â€Å"it is better to be poor and happy than to be wealthy and unhappy,† meaning no matter how big or deep your  pocket it is, it will not give you happiness. I always surround myself with the things that make me the most happy. It is of course my family, my best friends, etc. When I finish school, I plan on opening my own business it may or may not be successful either way that is my goal. It is what’s going to make me happy. Whether I become very wealthy or very poor that is what will make me the most happiest. The thought of my goal and dream to be my own boss will give me great pleasure in saying to someone â€Å"I am my own boss,† finally. I hope to be as successful as some of the people in my family are. Some own their own business, some have very high paying jobs at very well known corporations/businesses. Even if I become a manager at a business or corporation it will still make me very happy to say that I’ve accomplished my dreams in becoming â€Å"wealthy,† because that is how I define wealthy; rising from the very bottom to the very top in my life. I want to show my parents that I have accomplished my dreams because I have more opportunities than my mother and father did from when they first arrived in this country. It will make me happy just seeing my mother happy. It’s a great thing to be, happy. Lebanese people are happy whether they are very poor, middle-class, an d wealthy sometimes. Americans don’t see the economic status the same as us Lebanese, but I have seen a number of people say the same who are Americans. Having good health is the number one priority in a Lebanese family. My mother also has always said â€Å"without health you have nothing.† If my father wasn’t healthy he may be still alive. I know my father’s side of the family has a history of heart disease and he was also under a lot of stress at the time. But he wasn’t healthy at all. If a person isn’t healthy, there would be no way a person can go to school to get an education, go to work to earn their money, not even get up out of their beds. Health is a big issue in Lebanon and in America. Obesity is growing and growing in America every day. I’m concerned for myself and family. But with the help of God and us there is no way being unhealthy is an option in my book. In conclusion, independence, a helping hand, and health have best described my melting pot and shape me to be the person I am today. There is no better way to explaining myself in any other way than I already have. Thank you.